This study tried to clarify how pupils acquired citizenship attitudes in the classroom. The participants consisted of sixth graders who attended a social studies lesson in an elementary school (N=33). The topic of the lesson was the Meiji Restoration. Four pupils were chosen as the targets for research. In an attempt to fully describe the interrelationship of opinions delivered by and exchanged between the target pupils (N=4) and other pupils, a ‘Pupil-Centred Discussion Diagram’ (PCDD) was constructed based on a critical review of past research findings. The PCDD was then used to investigate the pupils’ acquisition of citizenship attitudes on the basis of categories of citizenship attitude components. The results indicated the following: (1) in the classroom, the pupils were allowed to feel the ‘reality’ of the events during the Meiji Restoration and then put themselves in the Meiji politicians’ situation －the pupils were able to see the ‘sublation’ of conflicting opinions on the foreign policies of the Meiji Era and to accept the moderator’s judgement through experiencing each sides’ arguments; (2) each of the target pupils was able to acquire some citizenship attitudes, but in varied ways; and (3) the PCDD worked as a powerful tool for grasping the general picture of the target pupils’ and other pupils’ processes of citizenship attitude acquisition and development in a vivid manner.
This paper examines U. S. educational psychologist R. E. Slavin’s cooperative learning theory. First, the examination of his positioning in the history of cooperative learning in the U. S. has clarified his problem consciousness against D. W. Johnson’s cooperative learning theory. Johnson’s theory requires high-level expertise of teachers, so some educational psychologists including Slavin have developed a lot of methods that enable any teachers to pratice cooperative learning lesson. Especially, Slavin aimed to realize a fundamental reform of lesson with cooperative learning.
Next, it has been examined what Slavin’s cooperative learning theory is and how it has been developed. Slavin created two comprehensive methods (“Team-Assisted Individualization” and “Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition”) that are content-bound and curriculum-specific. Then he faced a problem that practicing them requires cooperation among teachers, and gradually moved emphasis from development of methods to creation of models that reform schools comprehensively based on cooperative learning. His last product, “Success for All,” contains some critical elements: dual class-organization across grade levels, tutoring, family support team (“Solutions Network”), etc. From the above, it is clarified that Slavin has regarded cooperative learning as an idea going through whole school and developed his research, not as a mere method. However, it is also indicated that his theory has gradually weakened the viewpoint that children encourage and help each other in groups and this can be exploited effectively.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of teachers based on social justice in music classrooms which include ethnic minority students. In order to discuss this aim, I utilize three basic procedures. The first is to make a definition of social justice in music education. The second is to examine the role of teachers of ethnic minority students based on the theory of Gay (2010). The third is to explain the role of teachers in music education by means of analyzing a special issue of Music Educators Journal which featured articles on ethnic minorities and music education in 2012.
The following two points result from analyzing the role of teachers in music education: (1) Teachers need to understand the ethnic background of their children and accept their culture into music teaching methods and curriculum, because it can reduce the cultural conflict between the school culture and the ethnic culture of the children. Consequently, children tend to be encouraged to join activities in music class. (2) Teachers need to design music lessons in which children can consider and act toward social justice. This is because it is necessary that children acquire the knowledge and skill to change society toward social justice. Therefore teachers are expected to create music lessons which encourage children to think critically, and discuss political messages and biases through music.
However, there is one critical issue, and that is, it is not clear how teachers create lessons using the political message and bias of music in music class. The important outcome that teachers create music lessons through which children can gain the knowledge and skill to change society toward social justice.
This study examines J. S. Krajcik’s project-based science (PBS) theory and analyzes the outcome of his “Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST)” project. This project sets out to make the next generation of middle school science materials. PBS is a teaching method in science education in which children learn important scientific ideas by collaboratively engaging in meaningful investigative projects over relatively long periods.
In his PBS units, Krajcik identifies “learning performances” as goals that clarify scientific ideas that are appropriate for the children’s developmental stage and scientific practices that are used for mastering the scientific ideas. Thus, in PBS, he successfully links doing science with knowing science. Furthermore, to motivate children to engage in investigative projects, Krajcik sets driving questions that are appropriate for the children’s developmental stage and pertain to meaningful real-world problems. In the context of learning scientific ideas through investigation, Krajcik proposes the “Investigation web,” which facilitates children understand and master scientific practices by themselves. In an IQWST chemistry unit, Krajcik sets learning performances for each lesson, and they are structured toward the learning performance at the unit level. Further, driving questions that correspond to each learning performance are also set. This defines the depth of scientific ideas and practices. Moreover, setting the performances and questions encourages children to learn scientific ideas by means of investigation, which is suggested by the “investigation web.”
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the contemporary significance of Paulo Freire’s educational thoughts of “Liberation” and “Problem-Posing Education” by means of examining Freire’s educational thoughts of “Liberation” based on the thoughts of Christianity and Marx, the dialectical relation between “Dialogue” and “Conscientization” in “Problem-Posing Education”, and the practice of “Problem-Posing Education” via “Generative Words”/ ”Generative themes”.
Freire’s educational thoughts is based on the combination of the thoughts of Christianity and Marx, and it is aimed at self-liberation from material and conscious oppression. “Problem-Posing Education” toward the fight for self-liberation is the dialectical practice of “Dialogue” as the practice of naming, encountering, and working and “Conscientization” as the direction the practice of “Dialogue” via “ProblemPosing”. In the actual learning, generative words/ generative themes mediate the dialectic of “Dialogue” and “Conscientization”. “Generative words”/ “Generative themes” mediate a learner and his/her living reality, an educator and learners, a learner and learners. This learning is self-liberation and social transforming because it makes a learner to aware of his/her ability to learn and criticize, and also guarantees the ability and nature which can fight for the gain of their rights and can participate in their society.
The learning of “Liberation” can pose critical suggestion of Japanese condition of learning today.
This paper explores efforts in schools to solve the trilemma of subject, activity and ability through the expanded perspective including the schools’ overall curricula. It will offer an analysis of facts and the possibilities in such efforts within the context of the core-curriculum, which formed a part the New educations of the early postwar period. Focus will be placed on what were called ability tables or element tables. This paper will be composed of the following sections: 1. A summary of the common “structure” of the ability tables/element tables; 2. Using Tateyama-shi Hojo Elementary School as the primary case study, an examination of how these tables were “construct”ed with their practical applications in mind; and 3. The possibilities of the simultaneous achievement of subject, activity, and ability, focusing on the Hojo Elementary School.
The following became clear. As activities in social studies expanded, other subjects became incorporated (core curriculum). Although the “structure” of subjects changed, the teaching and testing of subject contents (knowledge, skill, etc.) became more emphasized. Ability was at first divided along subject lines, but eventually there was a reinterpretation along inter-subject lines, leading to their listing in element tables.
In schools like Hojo Elementary, subject structures were not simply lists of elements but rather reinterpreted as tools. The elements listed were treated as tools to be used in activities. On the other hand, skill-specific groupings and tests were conducted in each subject.
While there were contradictions between subject, activity, and ability, the activities and the abilities they nurtured were understood holistically. While in practice elements were divided along subject lines, the goal was to make them applicable in all circumstances. A cycle was completed culminating in the evaluation of learning outcomes.
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