Optic nerve avulsion is an exceedingly rare condition. Here, we describe a case of optic nerve avulsion in a 74-year-old man with temporal hemianopia in the contralateral eye after a bear attack. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed separation of the optic nerve distal to the optic chiasma, whereas the high signal in diffusion-weighted imaging suggested nerve injury from the left side of the optic chiasma to the left optic tract. MRI slices parallel to the optic chiasma were obtained and used for evaluating the site of optic nerve avulsion and nerve injury, which were responsible for temporal hemianopia in the contralateral eye.
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) improves motor symptoms in individuals with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) and enables physicians to reduce doses of antiparkinsonian drugs. We investigated possible predictive factors for the successful reduction of antiparkinsonian drug dosage after STN-DBS. We evaluated 33 PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. We assessed rates of reduction of the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and levodopa daily dose (LDD) by comparing drug doses before vs. 6-months post-surgery. We used correlation coefficients to measure the strength of the relationships between LEDD and LDD reduction rates and preoperative factors including age, disease duration, preoperative LEDD and LDD, unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part-II and -III, levodopa response rate, Mini-Mental State Examination score, dyskinesia score, Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, and the number of non-motor symptoms. The average LEDD and LDD reduction rates were 61.0% and 70.4%, respectively. Of the variables assessed, only the number of psychiatric/cognitive symptoms was significantly correlated with the LEDD reduction rate. No other preoperative factors were correlated with the LEDD or LDD reduction rate. A wide range of preoperative psychiatric and cognitive symptoms may predict the successful reduction of antiparkinsonian drugs after STN-DBS.
The suction decompression (SD) method, which proactively aspirates the blood flowing into the aneurysm and reduces the internal pressure of the aneurysm, is useful for clipping surgery of large and giant cerebral aneurysm. However, there has been little discussion on re-utilization of blood aspirated during SD. This study aimed to examine the safety, convenience, and usefulness of autologous transfusion of aspirated blood using a transfusion bag. At the time of craniotomy, the cervical carotid artery is fully exposed. An angiocatheter sheath was inserted into the carotid artery and placed in the internal carotid artery. In SD, blood was aspirated from the sheath at a constant speed and quickly stored in a blood transfusion storage bag. Blood aspiration was repeated with a new syringe; once the transfusion bag was full, the blood was re-administered to the patient. Changes in vital sign and hemoglobin/hematocrit values before and after SD were examined in five cases performed in this procedure. The aspirated blood volumes of five cases ranged from 130 to 400 mL, and all aspirated blood was successfully re-transfused. There was no critical change in vital sign, and no significant decrease in the hemoglobin/hematocrit value. No findings suggestive of complications of thrombus formation, infection, and hemolysis were noted. Re-transfusion of aspirated blood during SD using a transfusion bag is a simple and safe method, which can minimize potential risk of re-utilizing aspirated blood, and enables the safe and easy execution of SD regardless of aspirated blood volume.
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is the most aggressive human cancers, with a median survival rate of only 14.6 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the frontline chemotherapeutic drug in GBM. Drug resistance is the predominant obstacle in TMZ therapy. Drug resistance occurs via multiple pathways such as DNA mismatch repair and base excision repair systems, by which glioma cells acquire chemoresistance to some extent (5% and 95%, respectively). Histone3 Lysin27 residue-acetylation (H3K27ac) status regulates cis-regulatory elements, which increases the likelihood of gene transcription. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex deacetylate lysine residues on core histones, leading to a decrease in gene transcription. In cis-regulatory element regions, complexes with HDAC repress histones by H3K27ac deacetylation. The cis-regulating and three-dimensional transcriptional mechanism is called “super-enhancer”. RET finger protein (RFP) is a protein that is expressed in many kinds of cancer. RFP forms a protein complex with HDAC1. The disruption of the RFP–HDAC1 complex has resulted in increased drug sensitivity in other cancers. We conclude that the downregulation of RFP or the disruption of the RFP/HDAC1 complex leads to an increase in TMZ efficacy in glioblastoma by changing histone modifications which lead to changes in cell division, cell cycle and apoptosis.
In cerebrovascular end-to-side anastomosis, thick, hard donor arteries overlying thin recipient arteries impair the view of the ostium, and may result in occlusion of the anastomosis. To improve the intraoperative view, we modified the stay sutures. After performing standard recipient arteriotomy and placing the first stay suture, we half-tied the second stay suture to leave a loop: half-tied stay suture (HSS). The thread of the HSS was secured with a clip to avoid slippage. For suturing side A, the clip pulling on the HSS was gently moved to the opposite side of side A, i.e. to side B, and the donor artery was revolved by several degrees to side B; the first stay suture was used as the fulcrum. Under the expanded view of the ostium, untied interrupted sutures were placed on side A. Then the donor vessel was revolved to the opposite side and side B was sutured in the same manner. At last, the HSS and all other sutures were tied fully. Our HSS method was used in three adults who underwent superficial temporal- to middle cerebral artery anastomosis despite anticipated poor visibility of the ostium. Compared with the conventional method, the view of the ostium was expanded with less manipulation of the vessel walls. There were no complications, and the anastomosis remained patent in all three patients. This simple modification of the stay sutures reduces the risk of anastomotic occlusion due to iatrogenic vascular damage by excessive manipulation under a restricted view.
Japan has a rapidly aging population and the application of neuroendovascular therapy (NET) for cerebrovascular diseases among elderly patients has increased, but feasibility and safety of NET for elderly patients are still debated. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate feasibility and safety of NET by analyzing the Japanese nationwide database, the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET 3). In total, 35,972 patients in the JR-NET 3 were analyzed retrospectively. “Elderly patients” were defined as those aged ≥75 years. Approximately one-quarter of patients who received NET were elderly patients. The proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0–2 before treatment and 30 days after NET was significantly low across all diseases in the elderly patients. Technical success rates were generally high across all procedures, but complication rate was significantly higher among elderly patients; ischemic complications were significantly higher with NET for unruptured aneurysms (UA) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Multivariate analysis revealed that mRS 0–2 before treatment [odds ratio (OR): 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.94, P = 0.03], middle cerebral artery aneurysm (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12–0.92, P = 0.04), and complete obliteration (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97, P = 0.03) were associated with ischemic complications with NET for UA. Moreover, mRS 0–2 before treatment (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36–0.86, P < 0.01), high intensity with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03–2.32, P = 0.04), open-cell stent (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.50–3.22, P <0.01) were associated with ischemic complications with NET for CAS. Taken together, our findings indicate that cautious and precise selection of patients suitable for NET is necessary.
Our aim was to clarify the nutritional status and energy intake needed for activities of daily living (ADL) improvement among convalescent stroke patients. This retrospective cohort study of stroke patients used data from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database. Mean energy intake per ideal body weight was 26 kcal/kg/day at 1 week after hospitalization. Patients were divided into two groups according to energy intake: ≥26 kcal/kg/day (high) and <26 kcal/kg/day (low). ADL was evaluated using Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and nutritional status was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment short form score. We created an inverse probability weighted (IPW) model using propensity scoring to control and adjust for patient characteristics and confounders at the time of admission. The analysis included 290 patients aged 78.1 ± 7.8 years. There were 165 patients with high energy intake and 125 patients with low energy intake. FIM score was significantly higher in the high group compared with the low group (median 113 vs 71, P <0.001). FIM efficiency was also higher in the high group (median 0.31 vs 0.22, P <0.001). FIM efficiency was significantly higher in the high energy intake group than in the low energy intake group after adjustment by IPW (median 0.31 vs 0.25, P = 0.011). Nutritional status improvement was also higher in the high energy intake group after adjustment by IPW (60.6% vs 45.2%, P <0.001). High energy intake was associated with higher FIM efficiency and nutritional status improvement at discharge among convalescent stroke patients.
An electrical cortical stimulation provides important information for functional brain mapping. However, subjective responses (i.e. sensory, visual, and auditory symptoms) are purely detected by patients’ descriptions, and may be affected by patients’ awareness and intelligence levels. We experienced psychogenic responses in the electrical cortical stimulation of two patients with intractable epilepsy. A sham stimulation was useful for differentiating pseudo-responses from real responses in the electrical cortical stimulation. Inductive questions, long testing durations, and clear cues of stimulation onsets need to be avoided to prevent psychogenic pseudo-responses in the electrical cortical stimulation. Furthermore, a sham stimulation is applicable for detecting pseudo-responses the moment patients show atypical or inexplicable symptoms.
A total of 482 operated idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients were divided into those aged <80 years at the time of surgery (group A: 400 cases; and male-to-female ratio, 259:141) and ≥80 years (group B: 82 cases; male-to-female ratio, 43:39) and comparatively investigated based on the following variables: (1) temporal changes in shunt efficacy rates, and (2) temporal changes in each symptom, including the patient’s fall frequency and preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and during follow-up at 3, 6 months, 1–4 years postoperatively. (1) The shunt efficacy rates at 3 months and 4 years postoperatively were 93% and 82%, respectively, in group A and 92.3% and 70.7%, respectively, in group B. This demonstrates a decrease in shunt efficacy at 4 years postoperatively, regardless of the persistence of shunt function or adjustments in setting pressure. This trend was particularly observed in group B. In group A, 41 (9.8%) cases had decreased efficacy rate, compared with 21 (25.6%) cases in group B, which occurred due to complications with an extracranial or intracranial disease. (2) Gait disturbance (G) and urinary incontinence (U) showed signs of improvement in the early postoperative stage, while dementia (D) and mRS score began to gradually improve from 6 months postoperatively. Patient’s fall frequency tended to become higher until 6 months postoperatively than the preoperative rate. In group A, symptom improvement was comparatively maintained until 4 years postoperatively, while in group B, all symptoms and mRS tended to gradually deteriorate beginning at 3 years postoperatively.
This retrospective study was aimed to investigate the association between preoperative left ventricular (LV) cardiac function and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary edema (PE) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Most patients undergoing CEA for carotid artery stenosis have concomitant heart diseases, leading to hemodynamic instability that can cause postoperative cardiac complications such as cardiac heart failure. LV diastolic function has recently been recognized as an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. We analyzed clinical data from the anesthetic and medical records of 149 consecutive patients who underwent CEA at our university hospital between March 2012 and March 2018. LV systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by ejection fraction and the ratio of LV early diastolic filling velocity to the peak velocity of mitral medial annulus (E/e′). Postoperative PE was diagnosed based on chest X-ray and arterial gas analysis by two independent physicians. Postoperative PE was developed in four patients (2.8%). Patients with postoperative PE were not related to preoperative low ventricular ejection fraction, but had a significantly higher E/e′ ratio than those without PE (P = 0.01). Furthermore, there was an increasing trend of PE according to the E/e′ category. Preoperative LV diastolic function evaluated by E/e′ was associated with the development of postoperative PE in patients who underwent CEA. The results suggest that the evaluation of LV diastolic dysfunction could be possibly useful to predict PE in patients undergoing CEA.
In this study, we used 45 adult cadaveric cerebral hemispheres to investigate the anatomical classification of the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) based on the number of stems, course, and anastomosis at the distal portion. We classified the SMCVs into five types based on embryological concept. Type A (18 cases, 40.0%) is that the frontosylvian veins (FSVs) merge with the vein of Trolard (VT) and the vein of Labbé (VL) at the distal portion of the sylvian fissure. Type B (5 cases, 11.1%) is that the temporosylvian veins (TSVs) merge with the VT and the VL at the distal portion. Type C (13 cases, 28.9%) is that no vein merge with the VT and the VL at the distal portion. The VT merges with the SMCV from the FSV and the VL merges with the SMCV from the TSV. They course along the sylvian fissure and merge at the proximal portion. In Type D (eight cases: 17.8%), the VT and the VL merge at the distal portion, and the SMCV from the FSV and the SMCV from the TSV join their confluence without merging. Type E (one case, 2.2%) show an undeveloped SMCV. Formation rate of intravenous anastomoses or bridging veins(BVs) at the distal portion between the frontosylvian trunk (FST) and the temporosylvian trunk (TST), between the FST and the temporal lobe, and between the TST and the frontal lobe was very low, because these formation may be difficult to occur during the embryological process in which the SMCV is formed from the telencephalic vein.
Considered with a poor outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), treatment interventions to prevent rupture of the lesions are mandatory for social health. As treatment option is limited to surgical manipulations, like microsurgical clipping, endovascular coiling or deployment of flow diverter, and these surgical interventions have a potential risk of complications in nature, a proper selection of rupture-prone IAs among ones incidentally found is essential. Today, a rupture risk in each case is estimated by several factors like patient characteristics and morphological ones of each lesion. However, unfortunately, an IA without treatment sometimes unexpectedly ruptures resulting in a devastating outcome or an IA surgically treated is turned out to have a thick wall. To achieve more efficient treatment interventions, the development of a novel diagnostic modality is required. Here, mainly through the accumulation of experimental findings, the crucial contribution of macrophage-mediated chronic inflammatory responses to IA progression have been revealed, making macrophage being a promising target for a diagnosis. If we could non-invasively visualize accumulation of macrophages in lesions, this imaging technique ‘macrophage imaging’ may enable a qualitative evaluation of IAs to stratify rupture-prone ‘dangerous’ lesions among many stable ones. Thereby, a development of macrophage imaging makes an indication of surgical interventions being more accurate and also greatly facilitates a development of a novel medical therapy if used as a surrogate marker.
It is known that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation flow sign in the lateral ventricles directly above the foramen of Monro (CPF-M) on axial fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a normal physiological finding as an artifact of FLAIR. In this study, whether CPF-M can be used as a neuroradiological finding related to pathological conditions in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) was investigated. CPF-M-related clinical features were retrospectively evaluated in 147 aSAH patients who underwent adequate serial MRI examinations without massive intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the lateral ventricle within 48 h of ictus. The frequency of the CPF-M in the control group was 32% (57/178), 33% (40/123), and 38% (45/117) for the normal control, chronic cerebral infarction, and deep white matter lesion (WML) groups, respectively. In aSAH patients, the overall prevalence of the CPF-M was 57% (84/147), significantly higher than in the three control groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age <70 years, lower IVH Hijdra score of the fourth ventricle, absence of T1-FLAIR mismatch, deep WMLs, old infarction, diffuse brain swelling, symptomatic delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus (SDCH), and favorable outcome were significantly associated with the CPF-M. Although limited to SAH patients without massive IVH of the lateral ventricles, one can conclude that, in acute aSAH, the presence of CPF-M on admission MRI suggests that the circulatory dynamics of the CSF from the basal cistern to the ventricles are approximately normal. Thus, this finding may appear to offer an indicator of a good outcome without DCI and SDCH.
To evaluate the changing paradigms of periprocedural antithrombotic management in neuroendovascular therapy in Japan, we analyzed the details of the current periprocedural antithrombotic therapy and compared it with those of the previous generations. We retrospectively analyzed the data from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 3, a nationwide survey in Japan for neuroendovascular therapy between January 2010 and December 2014. A total of 26,233 patients underwent endovascular treatments to usually perform periprocedural antithrombotic therapy were retrospectively analyzed. We compared the results of JR-NET 3 with those of JR-NET 1 (January 2005 and December 2007) and JR-NET 2 (January 2008–December 2009). Post-procedural anticoagulant therapy was less utilized in JR-NET 3 than in JR-NET 2 (53.9% vs. 60.6%, P <0.001). Pre-procedural antiplatelet therapy became more frequent and more intensive with each generation. The frequency of aggressive therapy (dual, and triple or more therapy) was 65.2% in JR-NET 3, which was significantly higher than that of JR-NET 1 and JR-NET 2 (41.5% and 61.2%, respectively, P <0.001). However, periprocedural ischemic complications (2.0% vs. 5.8%, P <0.001) significantly increased, despite aggressive antiplatelet therapy. Neuroendovascular periprocedural antithrombotic therapy is focused more on antiplatelet therapy than on anticoagulant therapy. Currently, antiplatelet therapy is more frequently used with a larger number of multiple agents, however, periprocedural ischemic complications significantly increased.
Anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) is difficult and challenging to perform in patients with type 2 odontoid fracture with a kyphotic angulation or an anterior down-slope. To demonstrate two surgical techniques to resolve kyphotic angulation or difficult fracture direction issues. Anterior odontoid screw fixation was performed in two patients with type 2 odontoid fracture with a kyphotic angulation or an anterior down-slope. This technique can avoid sternal blocking using a percutaneous vertebroplasty puncture needle, and can reduce the kyphotic angle using a Cobb elevator in patients with type 2 odontoid fractures with a kyphotic angulation or an anterior down-sloped fracture. In both the patients, AOSF was successfully performed and a successful clinical outcome was achieved. The screws were well-maintained with reduced fracture segment and well-preserved, corrected kyphotic angles were achieved, as observed on cervical X-ray 6 months postoperatively. Our technique is a safe and effective method for the treatment of type 2 odontoid fracture with a kyphotic angulation or an anterior down-slope.