In device-aided therapy (DAT) for Parkinson’s disease (PD), factors such as device-related adverse effects, psychological and lifestyle changes, and specific disease progression can affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advanced PD. However, there is no existing QoL scale that includes the effects of therapeutic devices. From a semi-structured interview with patients with PD undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS), we extracted the content of utterances that were thought to affect the QoL and created a draft questionnaire consisting of 113 items. This questionnaire was administered to 54 other patients undergoing DBS, whose data were examined for reliability and validity by factor analysis, and finally, a 24-item PD QoL questionnaire for patients on DAT (PDQ-DAT) was developed. Presently, the PDQ-DAT is the only scale that can assess the QoL of patients on DAT, including the influence treatment devices have on them. In the future, it might be used to help in shared decision-making in medicine by incorporating the patient’s sense of burden and values in the selection of treatment methods.
The increased use of neuroimaging and the aging of society have changed the incidence and proportion of histological types of intracranial tumors in Japan. A population-based epidemiological survey has been reported only from Kumamoto Prefecture. We performed a 10-year survey in Miyazaki Prefecture to compare our findings with the incidence rate (IR) of primary intracranial tumors (PIT) reported in the Kumamoto survey. Our study included 1915 new cases of PIT diagnosed in Miyazaki Prefecture between 2007 and 2016. The crude IR was 16.97/100000/year. The most common tumor was meningioma (46.3%), followed by glioma (17.1%), pituitary adenoma (13.1%), schwannoma (8.2%), and malignant lymphoma (3.8%). The age-specific IR of all PITs and of meningiomas, gliomas, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas, lymphomas, and germ cell tumors was similar in both prefectures. To directly compare with the age-adjusted IRs reported in the Kumamoto survey, we calculated the IR for the two prefectures. The age-adjusted IR of primary brain tumors in Miyazaki Prefecture was 14.65/100000/year, which was slightly higher than in the Kumamoto survey (14.09/100000/year between 1989 and 2008). The age-adjusted IR of glioma, schwannoma, and malignant lymphoma showed only a small difference between Miyazaki and Kumamoto. However, the age-adjusted IR of meningiomas was higher in Miyazaki than Kumamoto (6.15- vs. 4.97/100000/year), but the IR of pituitary adenoma was higher in Kumamoto than Miyazaki (2.66- vs. 2.13/100000/year). Although there were some differences between the two surveys, the IR of PIT showed a similar pattern in Kumamoto and Miyazaki, which are neighboring districts on Kyushu Island.
The goal of dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) treatment is obliteration of the arteriovenous shunt and/or retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage (RLVD). Single-session obliteration could improve symptoms early and reduce risk of neurological sequelae. This study investigated the efficacy and adverse events of endovascular therapy (EVT) aiming for single-session obliteration in dAVF treatment. We retrospectively examined post-treatment arteriovenous shunt status, number of treatments per case, treatment-related complications, and long-term outcome in 92 dAVF patients who underwent initial EVT at our institution. Single-session obliteration was intended in all cases, but a second session was performed in cases of partial shunt occlusion or remaining RLVD. Complete occlusion was achieved in 85 cases (92.4%) after the single session; RLVD was obliterated in 66 of the 67 Borden type II and III cases combined (98.5%). A second session was necessary in seven cases (7.6%). Complete shunt obliteration was eventually achieved in all cases. The average number of treatments was 1.08 per case. dAVF-related stroke and mortality did not occur after the treatment. On the other hand, radiation-induced skin erythema and alopecia, although all symptoms were transient, occurred in 26 cases (28.3%). Over an average 60.2-month follow-up period, recurrence was observed in seven cases (7.6%). Single-session obliteration was successful in 92% of cases. Especially, single-session obliteration of RLVD may contribute to early prevent of future stroke events. However, reducing total radiation dose during each session is an issue of further study.
Various approaches have been tried for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment to shorten the time from onset to recanalization. MRI positioning scanning (PS), which must be taken before any MRI sequences, was examined whether it can detect cerebral large vessel occlusion. A total of 68 consecutive patients with AIS who underwent MRI and were treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or mechanical thrombectomy at our hospital were retrospectively included in this study. Occluded vessels were identified on the axial or coronal views of PS images, and these images were compared with 3D time-of-flight MRA and digital subtraction angiogram. The sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) for internal carotid artery (ICA), the proximal M1, distal M1, and M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed, and the number of PS slices was assessed. The sensitivities of the axial slices for ICA, proximal M1, distal M1, and M2 occlusion were 62%, 21%, 35%, and 86%, respectively. The PPVs of the axial slices for ICA, proximal M1, distal M1, and M2 occlusion were 81%, 88%, 100%, and 97%, respectively, and the NPVs of the axial slices for ICA, proximal M1, distal M1, and M2 occlusion were 94%, 90%, 86%, and 100%, respectively. The detection rate for the ICA was significantly higher with three axial slices (91%) than with two slices (47%) (p <0.01). MRI PS is warranted to be referred to detect large cerebral vessel occlusion.
Clinical trial data of Carmustine implant (Gliadel Wafer) in Japanese patients with malignant glioma are limited; thus, we conducted a postmarketing surveillance study to evaluate the safety of Gliadel in real-world clinical practice in Japan. In this postmarketing surveillance study, all patients who received Gliadel placement for malignant glioma surgeries from its market launch (January 9, 2013) to July 10, 2013 were enrolled from 229 institutions using a central registration system. Up to eight wafers of Gliadel (containing 61.6 mg of carmustine) were used to cover the site of brain tumor resection intraoperatively according to the size and shape of the tumor resection cavity. The observation period lasted 3 months after Gliadel placement. Patients were followed up for 1 year postoperatively. Safety was assessed by the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In total, 558 patients were included. Most patients (66.7%) received eight Gliadel wafers. The percentage of patients with ADRs was 35.7% (365 ADR episodes in 199 patients). Of the AEs of special interest, the most common were cerebral edema (22.2%, 124/558 patients), convulsion (9.9%, 55/558 patients), impaired healing (4.8%, 27/558 patients), and infection (3.4%, 19/558 patients). This first all-case postmarketing surveillance report of the safety of Gliadel in real-world clinical practice in Japan suggests that the risk of toxicity with Gliadel placement is relatively tolerable. The survival benefits of Gliadel placement should be evaluated and considered carefully by the clinician taking into account possible toxicities.
We developed a new cranioplasty method that utilizes artificial bone made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, with a wedge-shaped edge (UHMWPE Wing). This study shows the methods and data of case series and finite element analyses with the UHMWPE Wing. A circumferential wing was preoperatively designed for a custom-made artificial bone made of UHMWPE to achieve high fixed power and to minimize the usage of cranial implants. Here, we present 4 years of follow-up data and finite element analyses for patients treated with the UHMWPE Wing between February 2015 and February 2019. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent cranioplasty using our UHMWPE Wing design. There were no postoperative adverse events in 17 of the patients for at least 18 months. One case of hydrocephalus experienced screw loosening and graft uplift due to shunt malfunction. Placement of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt immediately returned the artificial bone to normal position. Finite element analyses revealed that a model using the UHMWPE Wing had the highest withstand load and lowest deformation. This is the first report on the UHMWPE Wing method. This method may enable clinicians to minimize dead space and achieve high strength in cranioplasty.
Moyamoya disease (MMD) causes intracranial arterial stenosis progression. The progression of intracranial arterial stenosis will increase the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events. This study aims to investigate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis progression, vessel wall enhancement (VWE), and the recent neurological symptoms. A total of 39 MMD patients (12 male; 37.6 ± 18.0 years old) were registered in this study analysis between April 2016 and July 2018. All patients received MRI at registration and 6, 12, and 24 months post-registration. The incidence of ischemic cerebrovascular events (transit ischemic attacks or cerebral infarction) was checked until December 2018. We evaluated the relationship between the intensity of VWE, intracranial arterial stenosis, and the recent neurological symptoms. During the mean follow-up period of 13.8 ± 5.5 months, the changes in VWE were observed in 33 hemispheres (42.3%), stenosis progression was observed in 21 hemispheres (26.9%), and recent neurological symptoms occurred in 10 hemispheres (12.8%). Stenosis progression was observed in 11 hemispheres (33.3%) in the VWE(+) group and ten hemispheres (22.2%) in the VWE(−) group (p = 0.310). The recent neurological symptoms were observed in eight hemispheres (21.2%) in the VWE(+) group and two hemispheres (4.44%) in the VWE(−) group (odds ratio 6.88, 95% confidence interval 1.35–34.98, p = 0.015). The intensity of VWE sometimes changes. The changes in VWE were significantly associated with the recent neurological symptoms but not with stenosis progression.
Brain bulging is an unfavorable outcome in patients with brain swelling who require decompressive craniectomy (DC) to control elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Although several previous studies have described methods for reducing the operation time during DC in these patients, few have proposed a technique for controlling brain protrusion. Here we describe an effective and simple method for external reduction of ICP and discuss its suitability for patients at risk of brain bulging during DC. After craniectomy, crank-shaped lines extending from a central square dural canopy are all marked on the dura. As the incisions are made, pressure from the swelling brain opens the lines and the protruding cortical surface forms dural windows. The square canopy gradually rotates as it stretches, and along with the remaining dura, functions to gently support and compress the cortex. In the case of insufficient decompression, the incision lines can be extended to further reduce ICP. As the parenchyma is accessible to the surgeon, hematoma removal can be performed through the dural windows. In initial experience of four patients who underwent this technique, ICP was controlled in all cases after surgery and no adverse events occurred. The crank-shaped dural incision method is a simple, quick, and effective technique for external reduction of ICP in patients at risk of brain bulging that is intuitive in the emergency situation and thus can be performed even by relatively inexperienced neurosurgeons.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type diffuse astrocytic tumors tend to be pathologically diagnosed as glioblastomas (GBMs). We previously reported that myoinositol to total choline (Ins/Cho) ratio in GBMs on magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy was significantly lower than that in IDH-mutant gliomas. We then hypothesized that a low Ins/Cho ratio is a poor prognosis factor in patients with GBMs, IDH-wild-type. In the present study, we calculated the Ins/Cho ratios of patients with GBMs and investigated their progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) to determine their utility as prognostic marker. We classified patients with GBMs harboring wild-type IDH (n = 27) into two groups based on the Ins/Cho ratio, and compared patient backgrounds, pathological findings, PFS, OS, and copy number aberrations between the high and low Ins/Cho groups. Patients with GBMs in the low Ins/Cho ratio group indicated shorter PFS (P = 0.021) and OS (P = 0.048) than those in the high Ins/Cho group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the Ins/Cho ratio was significantly correlated with PFS (hazard ratio 0.24, P = 0.028). In conclusion, the preoperative Ins/Cho ratio can be used as a novel potential prognostic factor for GBM, IDH-wild-type.
The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between preoperative neuroradiological findings and intraoperative bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) amplitude in patients with intradural extramedullary tumors. A total of 24 patients with lesions below the 12th thoracic vertebra were included in the analysis. Objective and subjective urinary symptoms were investigated using data obtained from medical records and the core lower urethral symptom score (CLSS) questionnaire. The lesion compression rate was evaluated with MRI. In the epiconus-to-conus medullaris (Epi-CM) group, BCR amplitude changes were found to be correlated with the compression rate (p <0.05). The preoperative CLSS of the group with a BCR amplitude of <50% was worse than that of the group with ≥50% (p <0.01). The group did not experience symptom improvement 6 months postoperatively based on the CLSS. The preoperative CLSS of the group with compression rate of ≥80% on imaging was worse than that of the group with <80% (p <0.05). In the group with preoperative compression rate of ≥80%, CLSS at 1 month and 6 months postoperatively was improved as compared to preoperative CLSS (p <0.01, p <0.05). Hence, BCR amplitude changes are associated with the degree of lesion compression on preoperative images and pre- and postoperative urinary symptoms. Patients with intradural extramedullary Epi-CM lesions with strong compression are likely to present with low BCR amplitude and worsened postoperative symptoms. It is considered that the risk of postoperative urinary symptoms increases even with careful surgical manipulation under these conditions.
The present study was conducted to investigate whether non-fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels can be used to assess a risk for the progression of carotid artery stenosis. This was a single-center retrospective study. Consecutive 96 patients with ≥50% stenosis of at least unilateral cervical internal carotid artery and normal fasting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of ≤140 mg/dL were followed up for at least 1 year (mean, 3.1 years), and clinical variables were compared between patients with and without carotid stenosis progression (≥10% increases in the degree on ultrasonography). Carotid stenosis progression was shown in 21 patients, associated with less frequent treatment with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), higher non-fasting TG and glucose levels. In carotid artery-based analyses including <50% stenosis side, stenosis progression was shown in 23 of 121 arteries except for those with complete occlusion and less than 1-year follow-up period because of carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Stenosis progression was more frequently observed in symptomatic and/or radiation-induced lesions, and was also accompanied with less frequent treatment with CCBs, higher non-fasting TG and glucose levels in carotid artery-based analyses. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed that a cutoff value of non-fasting TG to discriminate carotid stenosis progression was 169.5 mg/dL for carotid arteries with the baseline stenosis of <50%, and 154.5mg/dL for those of ≥50%. Non-fasting TG level was an independent risk factor of carotid stenosis progression, and more strict control of non-fasting TG may be necessary for higher degree of carotid artery stenosis.
This study aimed to examine the beneficial effects of a novel prophylactic barbiturate therapy, step-down infusion of barbiturates, using thiamylal with normothermia (NOR+sdB), on the poor outcome in the patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (sTBI), in comparison with mild hypothermia (MD-HYPO). From January 2000 to March 2019, 4133 patients with TBI were admitted to our hospital. The inclusion criteria were: a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of ≤8 on admission, age between 20 and 80 years, intracranial hematoma requiring surgical evacuation of the hematoma with craniotomy and/or external decompression, and patients who underwent management of body temperature and assessed their outcome at 6–12 months. Finally, 43 patients were included in the MD-HYPO (n = 29) and NOR+sdB (n = 14) groups. sdB was initiated intraoperatively or immediately after the surgical treatment. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics, including age, sex, past medical history, GCS on admission, type of intracranial hematoma, and length of hospitalization between the two groups. Although NOR+sdB could not improve the patient’s poor outcome either at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) or at 6–12 months after admission, the treatment inhibited composite death at discharge from the ICU. The mean value of the maximum intracranial pressure (ICP) in the NOR+sdB group was <20 mmHg throughout the first 120 h. NOR+sdB prevented composite death in the ICU in patients with sTBI, and we may obtain novel insights into the beneficial role of prophylactic barbiturate therapy from suppression of the elevated ICP during the first 120 h.
Extensive traumatic anterior skull base fractures from the frontal sinus to the parasellar region are frequently accompanied by multiple dural defects that cause persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Conventional transcranial reconstruction using a frontal periosteal flap is frequently insufficient, and parasellar dural defects are often deep, complex, and difficult to identify. In this report, we describe a combined transcranial–endonasal reconstructive technique and report our experience. Simultaneous combined transcranial and endoscopic surgery was performed in three patients with CSF leakage resulting from traumatic anterior skull base fractures. Dural defects were thoroughly identified from the transcranial and endonasal surgical fields, and covered using a multilayer sealing technique. The anterior regions of the anterior skull base were reconstructed using a free fascial flap and frontal periosteal flap; posterior and parasellar regions were reconstructed using a fat graft, vascularized nasoseptal flap, and endonasal balloon. Suturing the transcranial grafts to the parasellar dura mater was performed collaboratively by the transcranial and endonasal surgeons. In our cases, complete cessation of CSF leakage was achieved without perioperative lumbar drainage in all patients. Mean time to postoperative ambulation was 7 days (range, 3–11). No surgical complications occurred. Simultaneous transcranial and endonasal procedures were helpful to detect all sites of CSF leakage and secure reconstructive grafts. The combined transcranial and endonasal reconstructive technique achieved secure skull base reconstruction without recurrence of CSF leakage, and allowed early postoperative ambulation. This technique can be a reliable surgical option to repair CSF leakage resulting from extensive anterior skull base fractures.
Very few studies have described the blood flow pattern in the ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OphA) during internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon test occlusion performed to estimate the risk of cerebral ischemia associated with therapeutic ICA sacrifice. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ipsilateral OphA flow patterns just after ICA temporary occlusion and balloon test occlusion findings. We retrospectively reviewed 32 balloon test occlusion procedures performed at our institution between 2010 and 2019, and analyzed the OphA flow patterns and the conventional balloon test occlusion assessment items: neurological symptoms, stump pressure, stump-pressure ratio, collateral circulations, and venous phase delay. The flow patterns were categorized as type I (retrograde flow reaching the middle cerebral artery [MCA]), type II (retrograde flow to the ICA not reaching the MCA), or type III (no retrograde flow). Tolerance to balloon test occlusion was observed in 4/21 patients (19.0%), 4/6 patients (66.7%), and all five patients with types I, II, and III flows, respectively. The mean pressure ratios during balloon test occlusion in flow types I, II, and III were 35.6% ± 3.5%, 56.4% ± 6.5%, and 69.4% ± 7.1%, respectively (P <0.001). The mean stump pressures in flow types I, II, and III were 36.2 ± 3.6 mmHg, 46.6 ± 6.7 mmHg, and 66.6 ± 7.3 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.003). The mean venous phase delay in flow types I, II, and III were 0.99 ± 0.14 s, 0.25 ± 0.25 s, and 0.0 ± 0.28 s, respectively (P = 0.004). All the above variables showed significant flow-related differences. These results suggest that the OphA flow patterns may provide an additional diagnostic criterion for balloon test occlusion.
Several basic experimental studies have demonstrated that statins have beneficial effects for intracranial aneurysm (IA). Clinical studies on unruptured IAs, however, remain limited to four retrospective studies that have reached different conclusions. This study was the first open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to assess the preventive effects of atorvastatin. Patients with unruptured small saccular IAs were randomly assigned to statin and control groups. The primary endpoint was a composite of aneurysm growth of ≥0.5 mm, new bleb formation confirmed from magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, and rupture. Enrollment was prematurely terminated due to unexpectedly slow enrollment. Of 231 patients (275 target IAs), 110 patients (128 IAs) were randomly assigned to the statin group and 121 patients (147 IAs) to the control group. After excluding 22 dropout patients, 107 IAs in the 93 statin group patients and 140 IAs in the 116 control group patients were finally analyzed. No significant differences of basic characteristics were evident between groups, except for significantly higher systolic pressure in the statin group (P = 0.03). The primary endpoint occurred in 28 IAs (20.0%) in the control group and in 17 IAs (15.9%) in the statin group. No aneurysm rupture was confirmed in either group. Significant beneficial effects of statin for IAs were not demonstrated for the primary endpoint (log-rank P = 0.359). This randomized trial did not establish any preventive effects of atorvastatin for unruptured small IAs. Further studies of larger cohorts are required to clarify the efficacy of statins for patients with unruptured IAs.
The effectiveness of adenosine-induced flow arrest in surgical clipping for the cerebral aneurysms with difficulties in temporary clip placement to the proximal main trunk has been reported. This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the safety and feasibility of adenosine-assisted clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) in Japan. The inclusion criteria are as follows: patients over 20 years old, patients who agree to be enrolled in this study after providing informed consent, patients who undergo clipping surgery for UCA in our institute, and patients in whom the surgeons (T.H. or I.D.) judge that decompression of the aneurysm is effective. The primary endpoint is a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 30 days after surgery. We plan to enroll 10 patients in this study. The original protocol of adenosine administration was established in this trial. Herein, we present the study protocol.
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients occasionally present with preoperative facial weakness (PFW) or develop delayed facial palsy (DFP) after microvascular decompression (MVD). This study is aimed to evaluate the neurophysiology underlying facial nerve motor dysfunction in HFS patients preoperatively and postoperatively. In all, 54 HFS patients without prior botulinum toxin injection who underwent MVD were retrospectively reviewed. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude ratios of the affected and unaffected facial nerves, measured at 4 time points from preoperation to 1 year post-surgery, were aggregated. Clinical outcomes and the CMAP amplitude ratios were evaluated. Six patients (11.1%) presented with PFW, which correlated with advanced age (p = 0.007) and symptom duration (p = 0.001). The average duration to achieve PFW relief was 2.67 months postoperatively. The preoperative CMAP amplitude ratios of PFW patients were lower than those of patients without PFW (85.3% vs 95.7%). The ratios showed the lowest value at 1-week post-surgery in both groups (70.3% vs 90.9%), had a tendency toward improvement at 1 month, and finally recovered to almost the same level as that before the surgery at 1 year. Three patients (5.6%), whose CMAP ratios showed a persistent decrease from 1 week (56.5%) to 1 month (31%) after MVD, developed DFP. This study illustrates PFW in HFS patients reflects facial nerve axonal stress. MVD is effective in resolving spasm and PFW, without long-term damage to the facial nerve in most patients. In DFP patients, the direct and subsequent secondary axonal disorder develops on the postoperative facial nerve.
The efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) has been well established for postoperative residual and recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). However, the risk of visual impairment due to SRT for lesions adjacent to the optic pathways remains a topic of debate. Herein, we evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) for perioptic NFPAs. From December 2002 to November 2015, 32 patients (18 males and 14 females; median age 63 years; range, 36–83 years) with residual or recurrent NFPAs abutting or displacing the optic nerve and/or chiasm (ONC) were treated with HFSRT. The median marginal dose was 31.3 Gy (range, 17.2–39.6) in 8 fractions (range, 6–15). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and visual and hormonal examinations were performed before and after HFSRT. The median follow-up period was 99.5 months (range, 9–191). According to MRI findings at the last follow-up, the tumor size had decreased in 28 (88%) of 32 patients, was unchanged in 3 (9%), and had increased in 1 (3%). The successful tumor size control rate was 97%. Visual functions remained unchanged in 19 (60%) out of 32 patients, improved in 11 (34%), and deteriorated in 2 (6%). Two patients had deteriorated visual functions; no complications occurred because of the HFSRT. One patient developed hypopituitarism that required hormone replacement therapy. The result of this long-term follow-up study suggests that HFSRT is safe and effective for the treatment of NFPAs occurring adjacent to the ONC.
Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is a proven treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the efficacy of this treatment is uncertain for very elderly patients. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of MT in 90 years or older patients compared with younger patients. We retrospectively reviewed AIS patients treated with MT between October 2018 and June 2020 in our institution. Patients were divided into two groups: aged ≥90 and <90 years. We compared the following factors: functional outcome at discharge, in-hospital death, successful recanalization, and complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for the good functional outcome was performed. In consideration of pre-stroke basic activities of very elderly patients, we defined the good functional outcome as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0–3. In all, 66 patients were included, and 19 patients (28%) were ≥90 years old. Pre-stoke mRS was higher in ≥90-year-old patients (p = 0.01). In ≥90-year-old patients, we achieved successful recanalization in 17 patients (90%), and only one patient experienced hemorrhagic complication related with the procedure. The good functional outcome (mRS: 0–3) at discharge were six patients (32%) in ≥90 years old versus 19 patients (40%) in <90 years old (p = 0.6). Three patients died in hospital in each group (16% versus 6%) (p = 0.3). Only the stroke severity was negatively related with the good functional outcome in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, for ≥90-year-old patients compared with younger patients, MT is an equally feasible therapy. Patients should not be excluded from MT based on age alone.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are degraded by artifacts due to endovascular implants. We evaluated the use of streak metal artifact reduction technique (SMART) in non-contrast CBCT images after endovascular neurosurgery obtained from 148 patients (125 with aneurysm and 23 with dural arteriovenous fistula [dAVF]). Three neurosurgeons evaluated the cistern and brain surface visibility in CBCT images with and without SMART correction based on a 4-point scale (1, excellent; 2, good; 3, limited; and 4, insufficient). Significant improvement in visibility was achieved when the median scores improved from 4 or 3 to 2 or 1 or from 2 to 1. Metal artifact reduction in adjacent slices without metal and new artifacts after SMART correction was also examined. A significant improvement was achieved regarding the visibility of the cistern in 90 (60.8%) images and of the brain surface in 108 (73.0%) images. Metal size (cistern: odds ratio [OR], 0.91 per 1 mm increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.99), irregular metal shape (cistern: OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05–0.60 and brain surface: OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05–0.45), and infratentorial lesions (cistern: OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14–0.96 and brain surface: OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11–0.80) were negatively correlated with improved visibility. Metal artifact reduction in adjacent slices without metal was obtained in 25.6% and 34.8% of images with aneurysm and dAVF, respectively. New artifacts after SMART correction were found in 4.8% and 13.0% of images with aneurysm and dAVF, respectively. SMART is especially effective for supratentorial small aneurysms.
Transcranial magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) therapy is an emerging and minimally invasive treatment for movement disorders. There are limited reports on its long-term outcomes for tremor-dominant Parkinson’s disease (TDPD). We aimed to investigate the 1-year outcomes of ventralis intermedius (VIM) thalamotomy with FUS in patients with TDPD. Patients with medication-refractory TDPD were enrolled and underwent unilateral VIM-FUS thalamotomy. Neurologists specializing in movement disorders evaluated the tremor symptoms and disability using Parts A, B, and C of the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) at baseline and at 1, 3, and 12 months. In all, 11 patients (mean age: 71.6 years) were included in the analysis. Of these, five were men. The median (interquartile range) improvement from baseline in hand tremor score, the total score, and functional disability score were 87.9% (70.5–100.0), 65.3% (55.7–87.7), and 66.7% (15.5–85.1), respectively, at 12 months postoperatively. This prospective study demonstrated an improvement in the tremor and disability of patients at 12 months after unilateral VIM-FUS thalamotomy for TDPD. In addition, there were no serious persistent adverse events. Our results indicate that VIM-FUS thalamotomy can be safely and effectively used to treat patients with TDPD. A randomized controlled trial with a larger cohort and long blinded period would help investigate the recurrence, adverse effects, placebo effects, and longer efficacy of this technique.