Bevacizumab (BEV) is a key anti-angiogenic agent used in the treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether cytoreductive surgery prior to treatment with BEV contributes to prolongation of survival for patients with recurrent GBM. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcomes of 124 patients with recurrent GBM who were initially treated with the Stupp protocol between 2006 and 2019. Given that BEV has only been available in Japan since 2013, we grouped the patients into two groups according to the time of first recurrence: the pre-BEV group (N = 51) included patients who had recurrence before BEV approval, and the BEV group (N = 73) included patients with recurrence after BEV approval. The overall survival after first recurrence (OS-R) was analyzed according to the treatment strategy. Among 124 patients, 27 patients (19.4%) received cytoreductive surgery. There were nine cases in the pre-BEV group and 18 cases in the BEV group. Although the mean extent of resection for both groups was almost equal, OS-R was significantly different. The median OS-R was 8.1 m in the pre-BEV group and 16.3 m in the BEV group (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed that the unavailability of BEV postoperatively (P = 0.03) and decreasing performance status by surgery (P = 0.01) were significant poor prognostic factors for survival after surgery. With the advent of BEV, cytoreductive surgery might provide superior survival benefit at the time of GBM recurrence, especially in cases where surgery can be performed without deteriorating the patient’s condition.
Burr hole surgery in the emergency room can be lifesaving for patients with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). In the first part of this study, a strategy of combined burr hole surgery, a period of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and then craniotomy was examined for safe and effective treatment of ASDH. Since 2012, 16 patients with severe ASDH with indications for burr hole surgery were admitted to Kenwakai Otemachi Hospital. From 2012 to 2016, craniotomy was performed immediately after burr hole surgery (emergency [EM] group, n = 10). From 2017, an ICP sensor was placed before burr hole surgery. After a period for correction of traumatic coagulopathy, craniotomy was performed when ICP increased (elective [EL] group, n = 6). Patient background, bleeding tendency, intraoperative blood transfusion, and outcomes were compared between the groups. In the second part of the study, ICP was measured before and after burr hole surgery in seven patients (including two of the six in the EL group) to assess the effect of this surgery. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) were significantly prolonged after craniotomy in the EM group, but not in the EL group, and the EM group tended to require a higher intraoperative transfusion volume. The rate of good outcomes was significantly higher in the EL group, and ICP was significantly decreased after burr hole surgery. These results suggest the value of burr hole surgery followed by ICP monitoring in patients with severe ASDH. Craniotomy can be performed safely using this method, and this may contribute to improved outcomes.
Since smartphone applications are revolutionizing telemedicine, a new application specifically for stroke care (JOIN) was designed. Addition of the JOIN smartphone application to the stroke treatment workflow in our hospital was assessed. JOIN has key functions that may improve the care of stroke patients, including the ability to (1) exchange information such as patient data and medical images in real-time throughout the entire process of patient management; (2) track each step of the protocol from door to discharge; and (3) facilitate real-time interaction of all team members via text, audio, and a video chat system. Two periods, 2.7 years before the implementation of JOIN (Pre-JOIN) with 37 patients and 2.2 years after (Post-JOIN) with 54 patients, were compared, and the workflow for all 91 patients who had a cerebral infarction and were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or thrombectomy between October 2012 and July 2017 was reviewed. There were noticeable reductions in overall patient management time, including times for door-to-imaging, starting tPA treatment, and endovascular intervention with JOIN. Staff members were unanimously satisfied with JOIN, due to the increased efficiency of information exchange and the ability for real-time discussions with different professionals when needed. No significant changes in patient outcomes (as assessed by modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores) at 3 months and in the total cost for the treatment were observed. A smartphone-based application with the capability of sharing information instantaneously among healthcare professionals facilitated time-sensitive, acute care of ischemic stroke patients.
Infection is a common complication of stroke and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Although nutritional intervention reduces the risk of postoperative infection, the impact of specific nutritional products remains unclear. From a hospital management perspective, we aimed to determine whether the provision of specific types of enteral nutrition in acute stroke patients affects infection control and hospital costs. In all, 45 acute hemorrhagic stroke patients receiving enteral nutrition in a single center (April 2017–March 2019) were retrospectively assessed. Patients were divided into two groups according to nutritional interventions: the 1.0-group with general nutrition (1.0 kcal/mL) (24 patients) and the 1.5+α-group with an initial high-protein, whey peptide-digested liquid diet (1.5 kcal/mL), followed by a highly fermentable fiber-containing liquid diet (1.5 kcal/mL initiated after 4 days) (21 patients). Changes in body mass index (BMI), duration of antibiotic use, incidence of postoperative infection, and medical cost were evaluated. Baseline patient characteristics were similar between groups. The mean BMI change was lower in the 1.5+α-group than in the 1.0-group, and the mean duration of antibiotic use throughout hospitalization was 12.8 and 18.3 days, respectively. Antibiotic use in the 1.5+α-group was lesser than that in Japanese patients from other hospitals. The incidence of postoperative infections was lower in the 1.5+α-group. Injection costs for the 1.5+α group (615 USD/patient) were lower than those for the 1.0-group. Enteral nutrition provided to acute stroke patients reduced the risk of hospital infection and medical costs.
Lateral wall paraclinoid aneurysms (LPA) are a rare type of aneurysm located on the lesser curve side of the internal carotid artery (ICA) bend, at the level of the anterior clinoid process. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of flexion of the ICA on the morphology of aneurysms and outcome of endovascular treatment. Between 2003 and 2018, we treated 643 cases of unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms with endovascular therapy in our institution. Of those cases, aneurysms projecting laterally on preoperative angiography were defined as LPA. The degree of bending of the ICA (ICA angle) was measured and statistically analyzed in relation to the aneurysm characteristics and the occlusion status after treatment. In all, 43 aneurysms were identified. ICA angle was positively correlated with the maximum dome size of the aneurysm (P <0.01) and the aspect ratio (P <0.01), and negatively correlated with the volume coil embolization ratio (P <0.01). Complete occlusion (CO) was achieved in 23 cases (53.5%) immediately after treatment, and in 35 cases (81.4%) at follow-up. The mean ICA angle in the incomplete occlusion group was significantly larger than in the CO group (P = 0.01). Larger ICA angle resulted in recurrence, whereas smaller ICA angle was more likely to obtain progressive thrombosis (P = 0.02). Endovascular treatment for LPA was safe and effective. The degree of flexion of the ICA may contribute to the level of hemodynamic stress on the aneurysm, its morphology, and the embolization effect.
Internal trapping with coils is an established treatment of symptomatic large non-branching thrombosed fusiform vertebral artery aneurysms (VAA). However, when perforators arise near the aneurysm neck, parent artery occlusion has a high risk of causing medullary infarction. As an alternative treatment, we performed short-segment internal trapping of the artery using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and coils (bird’s nest trapping). Before treatment, perianeurysmal perforators are carefully detected using high-resolution three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA). Double microcatheters are advanced to the distal portion of the aneurysm through a balloon guiding catheter where coils are deployed without tight packing. Then, NBCA is injected into the coil mass, taking care to preserve perforators and significant branches. The same maneuver is repeated in the proximal portion of the aneurysm. Coil placement is avoided within the middle of the aneurysm; however, if necessary, only a small number of coils are placed to prevent worsening of mass effect. Two quinquagenarian males presented with a large thrombosed fusiform VAA that caused symptoms due to mass effect. In each case, perforators arose from the parent artery and short-segment internal trapping with NBCA and coils was performed. Symptoms improved after treatment and follow-up imaging confirmed aneurysm shrinkage with no long-time recurrence. In symptomatic large fusiform VAAs where the distance from the lesion to important perforators is extremely short, internal trapping using a combination of NBCA and coils can be more useful than conventional internal trapping.
In the skull tumor surgery that requires a large cranial reconstruction, economical one-time surgery is challenging. Calcium phosphate paste (CPC) alone is not applied in the large defect. Other plastic fill-in materials have each drawback. Ready-made implants are costly. The authors present additional technique of CPC cranioplasty combined with mainstay autologous grafts for a large cranial defect. The combination of split rib grafts was augmented by CPC. Tenons were placed for the stability of grafts. Our newly additional technique is that CPC is filled in the small adjacent spaces of autografts, not applied as the simple on-lay graft. We introduced this method to a 57-year-old gentleman with left parietal expansile skull tumor. The aesthetics of the patient has been satisfactory, and there were no complaints about pain in the graft site. In the follow-up period of 8 years, both autologous grafts and CPC were well maintained without marked resorption. This patient could work as a farmer in this period. Our methods fulfilled the requirements of aesthetics and in-situ plasticity for a larger cranial defect.