Various guidelines regarding surgical site infection (SSI) have recently been established. However, perioperative management of the wound and use of antibiotics have never been standardized completely in departments of neurosurgery in Japan. This survey investigated current perioperative management and administration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) and compared with guidelines intended to reduce SSI associated with neurosurgery in Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to members of the conference on Neurosurgical Techniques and Tools and the Japan Society of Aesthetic Neurosurgery via internet. The questionnaires asked about methods of perioperative management. A total of 255 members returned answers to the questionnaires. The questionnaires revealed that partial or no removal of the hair and hair shampooing at the day before surgery were performed in 96.1% and 88.1% of each institute following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Use of SAP at just before, during, and after surgery were 65.0%, 86.2%, and 63.0%, respectively. The postoperative period of use of intravenous SAP prolonged beyond 24 h in 80.0% against the recommendation of WHO. Perioperative management of wounds and use of SAP varies in institutes in Japan and some procedures were far different from the WHO guidelines. Japanese neurosurgeons should notice the prolonged SAP and comply with the WHO guidelines.
Discal cysts are a rare cause of low back pain and radiculopathy with unknown pathophysiologic mechanism. Associated symptoms are difficult to distinguish from those caused by extruded discs and other spinal canal lesions. Most discal cysts are treated surgically, but it is unclear whether the corresponding intervertebral disc should be excised along with cyst. We conducted a retrospective clinical review of 27 patients who underwent discal cyst excision at our institution between 2000 and 2017. The mean follow-up period was 63.6 months. We recorded symptoms, radiographs, operative findings, postoperative complications, and short- and long-term outcomes. Structured outcome assessment was based on Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain intensity, Oswestry disability index, and Macnab classification. All patients underwent partial hemilaminectomy and microscopic cyst resection without discectomy. All patients had preoperative back or leg pain. Other preoperative clinical features included motor weakness, neurogenic intermittent claudication, and cauda equina syndrome. After surgery, NRS scores of back and leg pain decreased. The other symptoms also improved. During long-term follow-up, patients reported no restrictions on daily life activities, and were satisfied with our intervention. There were no cases of cyst recurrence. We conducted a review of the literature on lumbar discal cysts published before January, 2018. Including our cases, 126 patients were described. We compared two surgical modalities—cystectomy with and without discectomy—to elucidate both effectiveness and long-term complications. We found that microsurgical cystectomy without corresponding discectomy is an effective surgical treatment for lumbar discal cysts, and is associated with a low recurrence rate.
The efficacy and predictive factors associated with successful spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for central post-stroke pain (CPSP) have yet to be definitively established. Thus, this study evaluated the rates of pain relief found after more than 12 months and the predictive factors associated with the success of SCS for CPSP. The degree of pain after SCS in 18 patients with CPSP was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale preoperatively, at 1, 6 and 12 months after surgery, and at the time of the last follow-up. After calculating the percentage of pain relief (PPR), patients were separated into two groups. The first group exhibited continuing PPR ≥30% at more than 12 months (effect group) while the second group exhibited successful/unsuccessful trials followed by decreasing PPR <30% within 12 months (no effect group). Pain relief for more than 12 months was achieved in eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients during the 67.3 ± 35.5 month follow-up period. Statistically significant differences were found for both the age and stroke location during comparisons of the preoperative characteristics between the two groups. There was a significantly younger mean age for the effect versus the no effect group. Patients with stoke in non-thalamus were significantly enriched in effect group compared with those with stoke in thalamus. Multivariable analysis using these two factors found no statistical differences, suggesting that these two factors might possibly exhibit the same behaviors for the SCS effect. These results suggest that SCS may be able to provide pain relief in young, non-thalamus stroke patients with CPSP.
The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term patient-outcomes, spinal fusion, and incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) between minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and open posterior lumbar interbody fusion (O-PLIF). We retrospectively reviewed 70 consecutive cases who underwent single-level MIS-TLIF or O-PLIF from March 2010 to July 2013. All the patients achieved a minimum of 5-year follow-up. Data collected for each patient included demographic data, perioperative data, and complications. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale (VAS). Radiological outcomes included fusion rate and ASD. About 34 patients of MIS-TLIF and 36 patients of O-PLIF were enrolled. Higher Charlson comorbidity index scores were noted in MIS-TLIF than in O-PLIF. Blood loss was significantly lower in MIS-TLIF than O-PLIF. There were significant improvements in clinical and radiological outcomes in both groups. At 6 months, in MIS-TLIF group had significantly lower VAS for back pain and disc height compared with in O-PLIF group. The fusion rate was similar between the two groups at 5-year follow-up. Although the total complication rates were similar between the two groups, both the incidence of ASD was significantly higher in O-PLIF group than MIS-TLIF group (P = 0.032). In conclusion, this study indicates that MIS-TLIF is comparable to O-PLIF in terms of fusion rates and clinical outcomes in single-segment degenerative lumbar diseases. In addition, compared with O-PLIF, MIS-TLIF has the advantages of lesser blood loss, faster recovery, and lower incidence of ASD.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is widely used for cervical artery stenosis. In Japan, primary closure after endarterectomy has been a standard technique. Recently, the patch closure has been shown to be superior to the primary suture for the prevention of restenosis and ipsilateral stroke. This study evaluated the 5- and 10-year outcomes following CEA with patch graft closure in our institution. Between January 2000 and March 2013, 134 patients, who underwent CEA with patch graft closure were investigated in the current retrospective study. Among these patients, 102 CEAs in 97 patients were followed up for 5 years and 66 CEAs in 61 patients were for 10 years after the procedure. Restenosis was defined as >50% recurrent luminal narrowing at the endarterectomy site. In 5 years, symptomatic restenosis exhibited minor stroke in one patient at 58 months after CEA (restenosis rate 1.0%). The ipsilateral minor stroke occurred in three patients including the above case (2.9%). In 10 years, asymptomatic restenosis occurred in three patients in addition to the above symptomatic case (restenosis rate 6.1%), and the ipsilateral minor stroke occurred in four patients (6.1%). Carotid endarterectomy with patch graft exerted a high protective effect from restenosis up to 5 and 10 years in our institution. The number of carotid artery stenting is increasing all over the world but we speculated that the established surgical procedure of patched CEA prevented restenosis and ipsilateral stroke.
The surgical strategy for severely localized ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine is still not straightforward. We describe the surgical technique of extended anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with partial resection of OPLL followed by posterior cervical segmental decompression and fusion (PCDF). This study investigated five patients with severely localized OPLL with an occupying ratio more than 60%. Extended ACDF comprising a modified technique with a trans-unco-discal approach and partial oblique corpectomy was first attempted to achieve neural decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots at the most prominent level of the OPLL. The OPLL was partially resected to reduce the axial occupying ratio or ensure that the OPLL did not exceed the imaginary line between the midpoint between C2 and C7 on sagittal images. PCDF was then performed to achieve satisfactory decompression of neural elements and cervical stability. One patient underwent one-stage surgery and the remaining four patients underwent two-stage surgery. No patients received spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and demonstrated CSF leakage after surgery. All patients showed acceptable or satisfactory functional recovery. No instrumentation-related complications were encountered. Radiological analysis demonstrated that all except one patient (OPLL associated with ankylosing spinal hyperostosis) revealed improvements in local angle, C2–7 angle and cervical tilt angle. This anterior and posterior segmental decompression and fusion for severely localized OPLL of the cervical spine remains technically demanding in some parts, but can offer satisfactory decompression of neural elements and stabilization of the cervical spine when applied appropriately.