Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) presents most commonly as a direct connection between the cavernous segment of internal carotid artery (ICA) and cavernous sinus (CS), and often accompanies basal skull fracture (BSF). The most frequently reported signs and symptoms are proptosis, chemosis, and bruit. Epistaxis is uncommon symptom of CCF. A 63-year-old man with a history of BSF due to blunt head trauma eight months previously was referred to our emergency room for massive epistaxis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a high-flow CCF with a connection between the supraclinoid portion of left ICA and CS via a pseudoaneurysm, suggesting the life-threatening epistaxis had been caused by high-flow shunting, through the gap created by the BSF. After the complete obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm arising from the supraclinoid ICA by stent-assisted coil embolization, the CCF was no longer evident and epistaxis ceased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a traumatic CCF with a connection between the supraclinoid ICA and CS via a pseudoaneurysm, presenting with delayed life-threatening epistaxis.
Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in a sinus of the lesser sphenoid wing (SLSW) is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of an isolated SLSW DAVF treated by coils placed into the sinus through the feeding artery. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with headache. Magnetic resonance images and an angiogram showed a varix in the right middle cranial fossa. A DAVF, consisting of three main feeders and the isolated SLSW, was diagnosed based on the angiogram findings. Retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage to the deep middle cerebral vein was observed. Given the remarkable extent of cortical venous ectasia together with the presence of headache and right abducens nerve paralysis, endovascular treatment was initiated. A transvenous approach through the right inferior petrosal sinus was not feasible because of difficulty associated with inserting the microcatheter into the SLSW. Thus, we tried a transarterial approach and were able to advance the microcatheter beyond the fistula into the isolated SLSW, through the artery of the foramen rotundum. The isolated sinus and feeding arteries were embolized with coils. The postoperative angiogram showed the total occlusion of the SLSW DAVF. This case demonstrates the feasibility of transarterial sinus packing for an isolated SLSW DAVF.
Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma (CEIH) is a rare cerebrovascular disease. Here, we describe a case of a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis and an abnormal coagulation state that was treated with minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma removal. A 54-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of incoherent speech, incontinence, and repeated stumbling. Laboratory analysis showed thrombocytopenia and the prolongation of prothrombin time due to alcoholic cirrhosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass in the left parieto-occipital lobe suggesting a hematoma. Minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma removal was then performed. CEIH was diagnosed from the intraoperative findings of serous hematoma, a thin yellowish capsule, and old clots. The postoperative course was uneventful and there was no hematoma recurrence. In conclusion, endoscopic hematoma removal may be one of the options for the treatment of CEIH in patients with cirrhosis and an abnormal coagulation state.
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes produce various symptoms. Therefore, the diagnosis is often delayed and patients arrive late for thrombolytic therapy. We report a case of acute isolated PCA occlusion that was successfully treated with endovascular clot aspiration. A 63-year-old man presented with right complete homonymous hemianopia. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) showed a high-intensity area (HIA) in the occipital lobe, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed PCA occlusion. Emergency endovascular clot aspiration was performed immediately after the diagnosis. Blood flow in PCA completely recovered 210 min after symptom onset. DWI after surgery showed partial disappearance of HIA, and the patient recovered from the symptom of right complete homonymous hemianopia. Endovascular recanalization is useful for acute PCA occlusion. This is the first reported case of acute isolated PCA occlusion successfully treated with endovascular clot aspiration. Prompt reperfusion results in a good clinical course in patients with PCA stroke. In this case, endovascular clot aspiration resulted in prompt recanalization in a patient with acute isolated PCA occlusion.
A nearly 80-year-old man with a history of radiotherapy (RT) and total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer 25 years previously presented with a rapidly growing mass on the right side of his neck. A huge pseudoaneurysm (pseudoAN) was detected at the right carotid bifurcation, though angiography performed four years previously had shown total occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Stent-assisted coil embolization enabled aneurysm sac shrinkage. Clinicians must be aware that the stump of an arterial occlusion associated with RT can change into a pseudoAN over the long term and must provide follow-up in such cases.
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