Mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever has been reported to achieve high rates of successful recanalization, and reduce disability and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to proximal vessel occlusion. However, in a few cases, the treatment is difficult due to artery tortuosity or other factors. The authors present a case of a 94-year-old man presenting with acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion. We attempted to treat using a stent retriever via transfemoral approach, but failed to advance the guiding catheter into the right internal carotid artery due to femoral artery tortuosity and a type III arch. By changing approaches from transfemoral to transbrachial and by using TrevoProVue through a 4.2 Fr Simmons-type catheter without a guiding catheter, we were able to achieve rapid recanalization in only 26 minutes from brachial artery puncture to reperfusion. In conclusion, rapid reperfusion in an AIS patient was successfully achieved by combining a stent retriever with a 4.2 Fr catheter (without a guiding catheter) and a transbrachial approach (as opposed to a transfemoral approach). When the transfemoral approach is not feasible, we recommend consideration of this strategy as an alternative.
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) provoked by physiological head rotation is known as rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) or Bow Hunter syndrome. RVAS most often occurs at C1–2 level with head rotation and presents with symptoms of VBI. Several previously published studies have reported RVAS at subaxial sites (V2 segment), however, tumor-induced RVAS has never been reported. The authors report the first case of RVAS at V2 segment due to compression from a spinal tumor. A 71-year-old man presented with symptoms of dizziness provoked by head rotation or neck extension. computed tomography (CT) angiography and dynamic cerebral angiography revealed circumferential stenosis with neutral neck position and complete occlusion of the left dominant vertebral artery (VA) at C5 level with his neck extended or rotated to the left. Complete neurological recovery was achieved after removal of a spinal osteochondroma and surgical decompression of the left VA via an anterior approach. Spinal tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of RVAS. Spinal degenerations or sarcomatous transformation of the tumor could lead to clinical manifestations of RVAS in cases with spinal osteochondroma. Complete removal of the tumor with or without spinal fusion would be the treatment of choice, in addition to medical treatment in the cases of acute stroke.
The treatment of intracranial complicated aneurysms remains challenging. In patients with complicated aneurysms that are neither clippable nor coilable, flow alteration treatment (FAT) with a combined procedure of proximal/distal occlusion or trapping of an aneurysm with bypass surgery has been reported. However, it is difficult to predict whatever FAT can achieve aneurysmal obliteration without ischemic complications. A 69-year-old female was incidentally diagnosed with a left vertebral artery (VA) fusiform aneurysm distal to the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Because one-year follow-up three-dimensional computed tomography angiography showed that the aneurysm grew significantly, surgical management was considered the therapy of choice. For determining treatment strategies, we assumed left VA occlusion at the proximal to the left PICA as a FAT model and performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The FAT model had much lower wall shear stress and shear rate at the aneurysm dome than presumed thresholds necessary to thrombus formation, while those at the PICA were obviously higher than the thresholds, and streamlines into the left PICA from the distal VA were preserved. These findings theoretically meant that surgical occlusion of the left VA proximal to the left PICA and aneurysm would induce intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation with preservation of the left PICA flow. The treatment was performed successfully and achieved the predicted results. CFD simulations may be useful to predict effects of FAT for complicated aneurysms.
Bypass surgery is often used in the treatment of large and giant aneurysms. Major complications that often arise during the perioperative period include cranial nerve palsy, ischemic complications, and hyperperfusion. However, there have been a few reports about late onset complications such as anastomotic aneurysms. In particular, anastomotic aneurysm after high flow bypasses has never been reported. A 57-year-old woman who had been suffering from left eye pain was diagnosed with a large aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) in the cavernous portion. She was treated with high flow bypass surgery using radial artery graft and proximal ICA ligation. One and a half year after surgery, a de novo aneurysm (7.5 mm in maximum diameter) was detected in the anastomotic site. To prevent rupture, the aneurysm was resected and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was reconstructed via superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass. Postoperative course was uneventful and the anastomotic aneurysm did not recur until 2 years after second surgery. Histological evaluation of the anastomotic aneurysm demonstrated loss of smooth muscle cells and proliferation of neointima, features consistent with a true aneurysm. Interestingly, the above changes were prominent in the radial artery graft while the MCA was almost histologically intact. As such, intraoperative intimal damage and postoperative hemodynamic stress to the radial artery graft may be a cause of aneurysm formation. Anastomotic aneurysm may occur after high flow bypass, necessitating careful postoperative follow-up.
Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1) rarely causes papilloedema, which is indicative of high intracranial pressure with or without ventricular dilatation. Furthermore, concomitant brain parenchymal abnormalities have not been reported to date. In this paper, the authors report on a young woman of CM1-induced intracranial hypertension (ICH) with diffuse brain edema with a focus on venous sinus assessment, and discuss the surgical strategy. A 24-year-old woman presented to Nagoya University Hospital complaining of 4-year history of severe occipital headache and blurry vision with slowly progressive worsening. Head and whole spine MRI showed a CM1 with diffuse white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted imaging and narrowed brain sulci without hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture revealed extremely high opening pressure. Detailed blood examination and other radiographical imaging studies denied the presence of tumor, collagen disease, encephalitis and other entities. Head magnetic resonance venography and angiography demonstrated severe transverse sinus stenosis on both sides. Foramen magnum decompression was performed to alleviate the ICH by restoration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stagnation at the foramen magnum with successful outcome. The patient completely recovered from preoperative symptoms immediately after surgery. The diffuse WMH and narrowing brain sulci have been resolving. The most feasible explanation for this complicated pathophysiology was ICH induced by CM1 led to transverse sinus collapse, resulting in diffuse WMH as a result of venous hypertension. This case report is the first illustration of successful surgical treatment of CM1 with diffuse brain edema with a focus on venous sinus assessment.
We present a case of double-crushed L5 nerve root symptoms caused by inside and outside of the spinal canal with spur formation of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 78-year-old man presented with 7-year history of moderate paresis of his toe and left leg pain when walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal stenosis at the L3/4 and 4/5 spinal levels and he underwent wide fenestration of both levels. Leg pain disappeared and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) improved after surgery, however, the numbness in his toes increased and 6MWD decreased 9 months after surgery. Repeated MR and 3D multiplanar reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images showed extraforaminal impingement of the L5 root by bony spur of the left LSTV. He underwent second decompression surgery of the L5/S via the left sided Wiltse approach, resulting in the improvement of his symptoms. The impingement of L5 spinal nerve root between the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the sacral ala is a rare entity of the pathology called “far-out syndrome (FOS)”. Especially, the bony spur formation secondary to the anomalous articulation of the LSTV (LSPA) has not been reported. These articulations could be due to severe disc degeneration, following closer distance and contact between the transverse process and the sacral ala. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a case with this pathology and may be considered in cases of failed back surgery syndromes (FBSS) of the L5 root symptoms.
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific external stimuli, or less commonly, internal mental stimuli. Understanding the characteristics of reflex seizures is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying network abnormalities in epileptic conditions. This report details a patient with medically intractable reflex seizures provoked by sensory stimuli to the patient’s right foot. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the seizure induced by sensory stimulation showed hyperperfusion in broad sensory-motor networks (dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, left thalamus, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior parietal cortices, left supplementary motor area (SMA), and left paracentral lobule) and left caudateputamen. The irritative zones and ictal onset zone were localized to the left medial frontoparietal (SMA, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, and paracentral lobule) and lateral posterior parietal cortices, as evidenced by amelioration of reflex seizures following intracranial electroencephalography and surgical resection of these areas. The neuroradiological and electrophysiological findings in our case study illustrate that the mechanism of reflex seizures may be associated with hyperexcitability of the broad sensory-motor networks, including the basal ganglia. Disconnection of these networks is necessary to treat reflex seizures.