The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between body balance and occlusal balance during the mixed dentition stage. Fifty-six healthy children with Hellman’s Dental Age IIIA: (31 boys and 25 girls) with an average age of 8.1 years, were selected from an elementary school. The body balance, distance and area of gravity center movement (GCM) were measured with automatic posture analytical devices. Occlusal abilities were measured with pressure-sensitive sheets (Dental Prescale®), including occlusal contacts area, average occlusal pressure, maximum occlusal pressure, occlusal force and occlusal balance. Analysis of occlusal balance was determined by separating the middle group (|x| ≤ 5 mm) from the deflection group (|x| > 5 mm) based on the position of occlusal balance center. Similarly, the children were instructed to perform the GCM area of eyes-closed exercise. The first 25% of the participants with the best balance were grouped as the good balance group; and the last 25% with the worse balance were grouped as the bad balance group. Results showed that occlusal contact area and occlusal force of the middle group were more than the deflection group, GCM distance and area of the middle group were less than the deflection group. occlusal contacts area and occlusal force of the good balance group were more than the bad group. Body balance function and occlusal balance function were observed to have mutual influence during Hellman’s Dental Age IIIA stage in this study.
AIM: To determine the causes of tooth loss among Nigerian Children. METHODS: The study was cross sectional. Study population consisted of 557 children aged 1 to 16 years from six tertiary hospitals from each of the six geopolitical zones of the country as well as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The reasons for extractions of teeth in the children for a period of twelve months were obtained including the age, gender and the type of tooth/teeth extracted. RESULTS: Seven hundred and fifty teeth were extracted for various reasons during the study period. Majority (55.5%) were extracted because of dental caries, 22.8% for orthodontic reasons, 12.0% for trauma and 6.3% for periodontal disease. More primary teeth (52.7%) were extracted than the permanent teeth in the children. Dental caries was the major cause of extraction of teeth in the south south, south east, north east, north central and the north west zones. While in the south west zone it was malocclusion. In the FCT, periodontal disease was the main reason for extraction of teeth. CONCLUSION: Dental caries is still the major cause of tooth loss with the mandibular first permanent molar being the tooth mostly affected. Periodontal disease as a cause of tooth loss in children is on the decrease while there is an increase in orthodontic reasons and trauma.
The objectives of this longitudinal study were to assess children’s caries risk and mean number of decayed teeth and determine their life style factors that influence their caries activity. A total of 283 children were selected based on the following criteria: they had 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5-year-old oral examinations, participated in Cariostat microbial sampling and the mother of a child filled out the questionnaires. Caries experiences of children were 2.1% for the 1.5-year-old, 8.1% for the 2.5-year-old, and 14.8% for 3.5-year-old period, respectively. Caries risk at the 1.5-year-old period showed significant differences (P < 0.001) for mean number of decayed teeth when children were at the 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old period. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was also seen for caries risk at the 2.5-year-old period. Regarding children’s lifestyle factors at the 1.5-year-old period, pre-chewing food and breastfeeding produced significant caries susceptibility in both 2.5- and 3.5-year-old period. Additionally, children’s life styles were analyzed to have an impact on caries only at the 2.5-year-old period. For children’s life style at the 2.5-year-old period, increased frequency of snack, irregular snack time, and brushing without assistance by the mother put 3.5-year-old children at high risk of developing caries. A caries activity test could predict 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old children’s caries risk based on the 1.5-year-old test result. Some children’s life styles at an early age showed a higher risk of developing caries at a later age.
The aim of the present study was to investigate caries activity and it’s association with the presence of S.mutans and S.sobrinus. The subjects were 499 children aged 2.5 years old, who participated in dental health examinations held from May 2006 to January 2007 at a health center in Katano City, Osaka, Japan. A dental examination was performed based on caries diagnostic criteria of the Health Policy Bureau, Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Plaque samples were collected using a sterile cotton swab from the maxillary buccocervical surfaces by the same dental hygienist. Two hundred seventy two (54.5%) children who had Cariostat score below 1.5 were determined as low risk and 227 (45.5%) who had a score above 2.0 as high risk. For microbial screening, 100 children were randomly selected from the high and low risk groups. The presence of S.mutans and S.sobrinus were detected using PCR technique. Thirty seven (18.5%) children had S.mutans alone, 20 (10.0%) had S.sobrinus alone, 16 (8.0%) had both S.mutans and S.sobrinus, and 127 (63.5%) had neither S.mutans nor S.sobrinus. Cariogenic bacteria were detected more from high caries risk than low caries risk children. A larger number of S.sobrinus was found in children with high df numbers than low df numbers. In this study, it was shown that S.sobrinus was more closely related with high caries risk activity and high df numbers.
The aim of this study is to elucidate the root resorption of primary canines in relation to the development of successive permanent teeth and the change in the internal structure of the surrounding area. We observed the mandibles of the dry skulls of Indian children, using Micro-CT, and measured distance between the root surface of the primary canine and the bony crypt of canine. The bony crypts including successive canines were located immediately below the primary canine roots in the primary dentition stage. When the first molars reached the alveolar crest in addition to the primary dentition, the bony crypts moved in the distolingual direction, and showed inferior growth, resulting in compact bone resorption of the mandibular base. Root resorption of primary canines was observed on the distolingual surface with the advancing of the developing stages. After the central incisors reached the alveolar crest, it was quantitatively shown that the distance between the lingual surface of primary canine roots and canine bony crypts reduced.
We evaluated whether long-term tooth loss induces functional and morphologic changes in the hippocampus in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) maintained until old age after tooth extraction shortly after tooth eruption. First, to examine whether early tooth loss acts as a stressor, plasma concentration was measured as an index of stress. Plasma corticosterone concentration was significantly higher in old or mature mice with tooth extraction than in the age-matched controls. Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between the young tooth extraction and their age-matched control groups. Next, hippocampal function was assessed by evaluating spatial memory performance in the Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze learning and memory trials was significantly slower in the mature or old tooth extraction groups compared with the age-matched controls. There was no significant difference, however, between the young tooth extraction and control groups. Finally, hippocampal neuronal morphology was assessed by counting Nissl-stained cells. The number of hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the CA3 region in the mature and old tooth extraction groups compared with their age-matched controls, but there was no significant difference in the CA1-region or dentate gyrus between the mature or old tooth extraction groups and their age-matched controls. In young mice, there was no significant difference in the number of neurons in CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus region between the tooth extraction and control groups. The findings indicated that tooth extraction after tooth eruption enhances the effects of aging on the hippocampus in mice.
The objective of the study was to examine changes in palate sectional areas, palate projection areas and palate volumes according to age. Using the maxillary dentition models, the palates of 7-, 8- and 9-year-old children, who were in the mixed dentition period, were measured three-dimensionally using the semiconductor laser. The palate section areas, particularly between deciduous canines, primary first molars, primary second molars and first molars, increased with age, as the palate expanded vertically along with the growth and development of the maxilla. The palate projection areas increased with age, as the palate expanded laterally along with the growth and development of the maxilla. The palate volume increased with age, as the palate expanded laterally and vertically.
The purpose of this study was to propose mathematical models for predicting mandibular growth direction and amount in children with anterior crossbite from 4 to 9 years of age using lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 25 Japanese children with anterior crossbite at 4 years (T1) and 9 years (T2) were traced and measured. The measurements were performed on 18 angular and 13 linear measurements. Variation of the angle NSGn and the distance S-Gn were used to represent the variation of growth direction and amount, respectively. The data were analyzed statistically by multiple regression analysis. The analysis revealed 2 models for the prediction of the mandibular growth. The variation of the direction of mandibular growth can be predicted by 68% with the regression equation using the angles NSAr, Nasal floor to SN and SNA at T1. The variation of the amount of mandibular growth can be predicted by 69% with the regression equation using the distance Ar-Me, the angles Nasal floor to SN, NSBa and Interincisal angle at T1. The parameters for the mandibular growth prediction for crossbite children are different from those of children with normal occlusion. This study will be of great importance to predict future mandibular growth of children with anterior crossbite.
Dental fear in children can be a psychological barrier for maintenance of oral health, thus it is important to objectively evaluate the responses to stress stimuli produced during dental treatments. In this study, we analyzed the stress responses of 15 preschool (3- to 6-year) and 22 school-aged (6- to 12-year) children to dental air turbine noise by measuring salivary levels of chromogranin A (CgA), a marker of psychological stress. Salivary CgA was significantly increased during exposure to the noise in the school-aged subjects, especially in those who had previously experienced tooth excavation, while there was no significant difference in CgA levels before and during noise exposure in those without such experience. In the preschool children, the noise did not induce increased secretion of CgA even in those with previous excavation experience. In addition, the levels of dental fear were assessed using a dental subscale of children’s fear survey schedule (CFSS-DS), while reactions during dental care were scored according to the Frankl Behavior Rating scale. In the school-aged children, change in salivary CgA level was not correlated with CFSS-DS (r = 0), while there was a weak negative correlation with Frankl score (r = -0.202). Our results indicate that air turbine noise causes psychological stress in school-aged children, especially in those who have previously received dental treatments.
Congenital absence of teeth is the most commonly known developmental dental anomaly in humans. Agenesis of the permanent first molars has the least frequency of all the tooth types and when present, usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Generally, it is easy to diagnose agenesis of the permanent first molars retrospectively, based on the clinical morphology and x-ray photographic features of the permanent second molars; while it is often debatable when made prospectively. Several hypotheses have been promulgated to explain the etiology of hypodontia with evolutionary and anatomic models. Nevertheless, clinical epidemiology does not completely support these hypotheses and therefore clinicians should be cautious; while speculating the missing tooth type based on these hypotheses. We encompass a comprehensive review of the literature on missing permanent first molars and illustrate two cases of missing maxillary permanent first molars to emphasize the complexity involved in their diagnosis.
Dentigerous cysts (DCs) are common cysts of the jaws and usually easy to be treated when small. However, extensive cysts involving three or more teeth are difficult to be managed. The purpose of this case report was to describe the management of an extensive DC in a child. The treatment instituted was the marsupialization with the extraction of the involved deciduous teeth. This treatment allowed rapid healing of the lesion and eruption of the permanent teeth with minimum orthodontic therapy.
This report presents a case of eruption guidance for an upper right central incisor with a dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted supernumerary tooth in a 5-year-9-month-old boy. A swelling was seen in the region of an upper right central incisor. Radiographic examinations showed that a well-defined cystic lesion, containing an impacted supernumerary tooth crown in it, was located between the root of the primary upper right central incisor and a permanent upper central incisor germ. Under general anesthesia, the dentigerous cyst was removed at extraction of the upper impacted supernumerary tooth. And then, a socket was kept open wound. A histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a dentigerous cyst associated with a supernumerary tooth. By using an obturator, we guided eruption of an upper right central incisor with malposition that was caused by the dentigerous cyst, and observed the way of the tooth eruption for two years and seven months. The obturator was inserted in the socket directly for three months until it was closed. After that, the obturator was used as only a removable space maintainer. Eight months after the operation, the obturator was removed because the upper left central incisor began to erupt. Two years and seven months after the operation, both upper central and lateral incisors had erupted completely. In this case, the obturator was used for expectation of natural eruption of permanent incisors, space maintenance and aesthetic recovery. The permanent incisors had been able to be guided to almost correct position without traction.
Cerebral gigantism is an overgrowth disorder that occurs from the prenatal stage through childhood and features such clinical symptoms as advanced bone age, macrocephaly, characteristic facial appearance, and learning difficulties. A 4-year 3-month-old girl was referred to our clinic for consultation regarding anterior crossbite and occlusal pain in the molar region. An intraoral examination showed that the mandible was considerably larger than the maxilla. The dental age of the entire dentition estimated from orthopantomogram images was approximately 1 year ahead of chronological age. Cephalometrics analysis demonstrated maxillary protrusion, prominent mandibular protrusion, and vertically severe short face. The size of maxilla was slightly small, whereas that of mandible was above the average. Since height and body weight were above the 97 percentile, the patient was referred to a pediatrician for a general examination prior to dental treatment and diagnosed with suspected cerebral gigantism. As for occlusal pain in the molar region, we considered that it was caused by excessive occlusal pressure. Following application of splinting and several adjustments, the pain gradually disappeared.
An intruded upper left immature permanent central incisor of a 6-year-and-10-month-old girl was splinted with a mouthguard-type splint because the adjacent teeth could not be used for fixation. She visited our clinic about 1 h after she fell from an iron bar at school and injured her tooth. After repositioning, the incisor was splinted for 4 weeks with a mouthguard fabricated using the pressure molding technique. Although the incisor erupted in the normal position, a radiograph 1 year after the injury showed partial obliteration of the pulp cavity, and total obliteration was observed at 1 year and 10 months. The apical shape of the root was round and the root was shorter than that of the right central incisor. The incisor showed vitality 9 months after the injury using an electric pulp tester and the vitality equaled that of the right incisor at 1 year and 10 months. A mouthguard-type splint is less likely to cause ankylosis compared to rigid fixture and is useful for the fixation of an erupting immature incisor.
The prevalence of infraoccluded or impacted primary molars was reported to be from 1.3% to 8.9% of the population with higher incidence between siblings. This is a report of a rare case of a 10-year-and-11-month-old boy with a previously erupted primary maxillary right second molar that was restored by with an amalgam filling at about three years of age. After seven years, the said tooth was found X-ray photographically to be completely embedded into the alveolar bone with an “impacted” maxillary permanent second premolar. There was also mesial tipping of the adjacent permanent first molar. The management of this case included the use of a space regainer to correct the molar tipping, surgical removal of the ankylotic infraoccluded primary molar and the use of a palatal holding arch to correct the torsiversion. This report underscores the need for early recognition of infraoccluded/ankylosed primary teeth by dentists for regular monitoring and timely and appropriate intervention.
A Japanese male with a karyotype of 49,XXXXY was presented for dental treatments from 6 years to 20 years of age. The patient had pulmonary stenosis as well as mental retardation, hypogonadism, fifth finger and toe clinodactyly, genu valgus, pes cavus and mandibular prognathism. Dental manifestations revealed multiple caries and taurodontism of both primary and permanent dentitions and hypodontia in permanent dentition. Dental management of a patient with 49,XXXXY syndrome is important to accomplish both controlling behavioral problems and medical considerations for preventing infective endocarditis.