The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect rubber dam placement on the arterial oxygen saturation level in children. Thirty children were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group A—15 patients in this group had rubber dam isolation of the maxilla, and Group B—15 patients had rubber dam isolation of the mandible. The children were healthy and cooperative. The arterial oxygen saturation was taken before each injection, before starting the intervention, i.e. 5 min after the injection, and at 5-min intervals. All SpO2 values were recorded every 30 seconds over a 30 minute period. There were no statistically significant differences in arterial oxygen saturation in all reading sessions for both groups (P > 0.05). The use of rubber dam did not decrease the arterial oxygen saturation level in children.
Intrusions occur frequently in the primary dentition. It has been reported that conservative treatment of the intruded primary tooth is preferred if the apex is away from the permanent tooth germ. Conservative treatments include waiting for spontaneous re-eruption, and surgical re-positioning and fixation. Few papers have been published in Japan comparing the prognoses of intruded primary teeth between these two different modes of treatment. Therefore, optimal treatment for intruded primary teeth has been a topic of controversy among clinicians. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of intruded primary teeth between these two modes of treatment. Moreover, we examined the issue of treatment of choice for intruded primary teeth. The subjects consisted of 17 children referred to the Hiroshima University Hospital Department of Pediatric Dentistry for the treatment of 21 intruded primary teeth. Fourteen teeth were allowed to spontaneously re-erupt (group W), and 7 teeth were repositioned and fixed (group R). Antibiotic therapy and irrigation were performed in all intruded teeth. Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the following parameters: re-eruption, pathological pulp changes, increased mobility, discoloration, pulp canal obliteration, pathological root resorption, and disturbances of permanent teeth. In group W, root canal treatment or extraction were not performed since re-erupted teeth reveal no signs of infection. On the other hand, in group R, 57% of teeth required endodontic treatment or extracted due to signs of infection. The result showed treatment outcomes in group R were worse than those in group W. Our study indicates that most intruded primary teeth re-erupt with a favorable prognosis. Therefore, observation with irrigation and antibiotic therapy should be the treatment of first choice.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the feeding habits and prevalence of the early childhood caries among pre-school children of Udaipur city, Rajasthan. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in school children between age group of 24-72 months. Demographic and attitudinal data were sought from parents of stratified randomly selected 586 children from this age group which was calculated according to a pilot study done two months prior to the study. RESULTS: Twenty-two point eight percent of the children examined were found to be affected with ECC. Forty-three point two percent and 65.3% of the children were breast fed and bed time fed respectively. Fifty-nine point one percent were weaned after 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: It was observed that there was increase risk of developing ECC with bed time feeding and among those children weaned after 12 months of age.
The present study assessed developmental stages of third molar crowns in a group of Nigerian children and compared development across arches in relation to chronological age and sex. METHODOLOGY: Panoramic radiographs of 560 healthy Nigerian children aged 5 to 15 years were reviewed. The stages of development of third molar crowns across arches were assessed and determined using the criteria defined in Gravely’s classification of crown formation. A score was recorded in each quadrant for each child. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 6 version for windows. Statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Males 267 (47.7%), females 293 (52.3%). Mean age 10.4 years (SD±2.5). Earliest evidence of crypt formation was observed at age 5.0. Mean age for stage 1 of crown calcification was 7.55, 7.75, 8.24 and 8.88 for the lower right, lower left, upper right and upper left quadrant of the jaws respectively. Differences observed between males and females were significant for stage 1 upper right molar crown development, (P = 0.03). In children 12 years and above, approximately 75% of the crowns visible on radiographs were at least half formed. Mean age for stage 5 of crown formation and initiation of root formation was between 13.10 and 13.43 years. The proportion of agenesis among children aged 12 years and above was 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: The first sign of third molar crown development was observed as early as age 5. A positive correlation was observed between third molar development and chronological age. Proportion of agenesis in children aged 12 years and above was 0.7.
BACKGROUND: Caries-risk assessment based on the individual caries-risk is very important in the public health setting. The objective was to longitudinally assess the caries-risk of each group using cutoff points. Each groups were low, moderate, progressive border, improved border, moderately high, and high caries-risk groups which were determined based on the 18-month and 2-year-old current and 3.5-year-old predicted cutoff points. METHODS: This study was a two-year longitudinal study of 1,206 children born in 2000. The children were divided into six caries-risk groups using the current and 3.5-year-old predicted cutoff points at 18 months and 2 years of age. It was investigated as to which caries-risk assessment was better. RESULTS: The 3.5-year-old predicted cutoff points calculated based on the 18-month and 2-year-old caries activities were more suitable for caries-risk assessment through analysis of significant differences of the mean numbers of dft in each groups. CONCLUSION: It was suggested that researchers and practitioners should try to keep caries-risk of children in the low or moderate caries-risk groups for caries prevention.
This study was performed to investigate differences in the shape of the individual palatal rugae in two population samples of Arabian children from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and develop discriminant function to identify the populations based on rugae shape. A total of 152 stone casts (80 from Egyptian and 72 from Saudi children), equally distributed between genders aged 6-8 years were examined for rugae shape (straight, wavy, curved, circular, unification and cross-link) and their incidence was recorded. Association between rugae shape and gender as well as rugae shape and population were tested using chi-square and discriminant function analyses using SPSS 13 statistical package. Curved and wavy were the most prevalent rugae shape in both groups, followed by straight rugae. Circular, converged and diverged unifications were few in number, while cross-link rugae were not observed in Saudi children. No significant gender differences were observed. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and population groups showed significant differences in curved, wavy, cross-link, converged and diverged unification. Three rugae shapes; wavy, diverging unification and cross-link contributed to the discriminant function which enabled population identification. It was concluded that palatal rugae shape revealed significant differences between the two Egyptian and Saudi populations and also confirmed previous reports of lack of gender dimorphism. Discriminant function analysis allowed differentiation of the populations and it is inferred that discrete variables such as rugae shape are better suited for that purpose than continuous variables such as rugae length.
The purposes of the study were to: compare the pain perception and the behavior of children, who received palatal anesthesia by the direct and indirect infiltration anesthetic techniques, correlate between pain scores and behavior, and to make some recommendations for clinical practice. Sixty-two cooperative children aged 6 to 7 years participated successfully in the study. Each child received palatal anesthesia by both injection techniques to extract their badly destructed upper primary molars in two visits. Immediately after injection, the Wong and Baker pain faces scale was used for pain scoring by children. There were 32 boys and 30 girls (mean age 6 years and 3 months). The tested parameters were; pain perception and children’s behavior during injection and pain perception during extraction. Comparisons between the effects of the two techniques within the gender and the tooth type were statistically performed using Chi-square test. Generally, no significant differences were found between the genders regarding neither pain perception nor behavior. For all children, the indirect technique significantly revealed lower anesthesia pain scores, and significantly more children displayed good behavior (P = 0.031, P = 0.004). No significant difference was reported in extraction pain scores between the two techniques, indicating the same efficacy of anesthesia was obtained. The second primary molar, significantly revealed lower pain scores of both anesthesia and extraction and a better behavior display of children anesthetized by the indirect rather than the direct technique (P = 0.04, P = 0.019, P = 0.046). On the other hand, no differences were revealed on anesthetizing the first primary molar. Children’s behavior was negatively correlated (r = -0.294) with anesthesia pain scores (P≤0.001). The results of the study recommend the use of the indirect palatal anesthetic technique for extracting the second primary molars and the use of the direct technique for extracting the first primary molars of young children.
Although using Buckley’s Solution of formocresol (FC) in pulpotomy procedures is becoming less common in pediatric dentistry. This study measured concentrations of formaldehyde (FA) evaporated during fixing and investigated safe procedures for FC pulpotomy. Methods: Ten measurements were taken for each of the conditions described below. Locations measured for each condition were 1) at a position equivalent to the patient, 2) at a position equivalent to the dentist, and 3) at a position equivalent to the assistant dentist. Condition 1 used no peripheral equipment. Condition 2 used an intraoral air evacuator, Condition 3 used extraoral air evacuators, Condition 4 used both extraoral and intraoral air evacuators. At the patient’s FA levels were 0.414 ppm during Condition 1, 0.158 ppm during Condition 2, 0.252 ppm during Condition 3, and 0.091 ppm during Condition 4. FA levels at the dentist were 0.115 ppm during Condition 1, 0.042 ppm during Condition 2, 0.081 ppm during Condition 3, and 0.028 ppm during Condition 4. FA levels at the dental assistant were 0.067 ppm during Condition 1, 0.038 during Condition 2, 0.059 ppm during Condition 3, and 0.025 ppm during Condition 4. Exposure concentrations of FA during FC pulpotomy might have using of an extraoral, intraoral air evacuator during FC pulpotomy reduces formaldehyde exposure to patient, dentist, and dental assistant.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the root resorption of maxillary primary canines in relation to the development of successive permanent teeth. It was observed the maxilla of dry skulls of Indian children, using Micro-CT, and measured shortest distance between the root surface of maxillary primary canine and the bony crypt of maxillary canine. The bony crypt including successive canine was positioned almost directly above the root of primary canine and located superior to another bony crypts in the primary dentition stage. When the first molars reached the alveolar crest in addition to the primary dentition stage, the bony crypt of canine grew, showing the distal inclination of the superior margin and mesial inclination of the inferior margin. After the stage which is central incisors reached the alveolar crest, root resorption of primary canines was observed on the lingual side nearby the root apex and the bony crypt of canine was adjacent to the nasal cavity. It was quantitatively shown that the distance between the roots of primary maxillary canine and canine bony crypts reduced from central incisors reached the alveolar crest to lateral incisors reached that.
Early childhood caries results in a considerable burden of pain and suffering as well as poorer general health. Streptococcus mutans (serotypes c, e and f) and Streptococcus sobrinus (serotype d and g) are the species closely associated with dental caries. The exact age at which their colonization occurs in children is controversial. The objective of this study was to detect S.mutans and S.sobrinus in plaque samples of Mongolian mother-child pairs by PCR and to compare their presence with the caries status. Dental examination and caries risk assessment using the Cariostat® carried out on 320 children aged 6-30 months and their mothers. The presence of S.mutans and S.sobrinus was checked by PCR. The caries prevalence and DEFT scores of mothers enrolled in the present study were 98% and 11.5±0.7, respectively. In children, the prevalence and deft scores of the 6-18-month-olds were 29% and 1.3±0.2 while those of the 19-30-month-olds were 59% and 3.4±0.4 correspondingly. Twenty nine percent of the 6-18-months old children of high-risk mothers and 53.1% of the 19-30-months old children of high-risk mothers had high caries risk (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between caries risk of 19-30 month-old children and their mothers (P < 0.001). In mothers, the prevalence of S.mutans and S.sobrinus was 79% and 33%, respectively; 54% harbored S.mutans alone, 8% harbored S.sobrinus alone, 25% harbored both strains. In children, 45% were positive for S.mutans alone, 9% were positive for S.sobrinus alone, 18% were positive for both strains. Either or both strains were detected in 67.3% of 6-18-months old children and 76.5% of 19-30-months old children. In conclusion, our results showed that S.mutans and/or S.sobrinus first colonized infants’ teeth from 6-18 months, and the colonization increased with increasing age, so that by 30 months of age, 76.5% of children harbored the bacteria.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride levels similar to those reported for saliva from low fluoridated and high fluoridated water areas on the demineralization of human permanent enamel. An adaptation of the method described by Robinson et al. was used. Sections of sound enamel were immersed in a vial containing demineralizing solution [2.0 mM Ca(NO3)2, 1.2 mM KHPO4 in 50 mM acetic acid, pH 4.8] for 1 hour. The demineralizing solution contained 0, 0.02 or 0.05 ppm fluoride, added as NaF was prepared. Twenty microliters aliquots were taken from the demineralizing solution at the time point up to 1 hour, with a sampling frequency bias towards the early time point. The phosphate content of the removed sample was determined by colorimetry. When the mineral loss curves for fluoridated and non-fluoridated demineralizing solutions were compared, there were significant differences between both groups. There was a decrease in the net mineral loss when fluoride was used. This result suggested that salivary fluoride levels of 0.02 ppm and 0.05 ppm had a protective effect against demineralization.
Dental pulp plays an important role in tooth vitality. Previous studies have indicated that stem cells can be isolated from dental pulp, and dental pulp exfoliated from deciduous teeth has become a useful alternative in dental tissue engineering because of its higher proliferation rate. However, heat stress can cause irritation in the dentin/pulp complex, and little is known about the thermotolerance of pulp cells and their response to heat stress. Heat shock protein (HSP) is induced by heat and various other stresses. It also reportedly takes part in causing apoptosis when wounded dental pulp cells heal. In this study, we investigated the responses of dental pulp cells to heat stress using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis. Cells were subjected to a temperature of 42°C for 1, 2, 7, and 14 h, and HSP70 was determined at each time point. HSP70 expression was weak before heat treatment, but heat shock markedly induced HSP70 expression. This suggests that heat stress raises the wound healing ability of dental pulp cells. The mechanisms by which heat stress induces HSP expression may be an important link between apoptosis and wound healing. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms underlying HSP expression in dental pulp is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies.