Plant Biotechnology
Online ISSN : 1347-6114
Print ISSN : 1342-4580
ISSN-L : 1342-4580
最新号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
Editorial
Preface
Original Paper
  • Yuuki Sakai, Takumi Higaki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Ryuichi Nishihama, Tak ...
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 5-12
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    The development of the plant body starts with spore germination in bryophytes. In many cases, the first division of the spore occurs after germination and cell elongation of the spore. In Marchantia polymorpha, asymmetric division occurs upon spore germination to generate two daughter cells: the larger one retains the ability to divide and develops into the thallus via sporeling or protonema, while the smaller one maintains tip growth and differentiates into the first rhizoid, providing a scaffold for initial development. Although spore germination of M. polymorpha was described in the 19th century, the intracellular processes of the first asymmetric division of the spore have not been well characterized. In this study, we used live-cell imaging analyses to elucidate microtubule dynamics during the first asymmetric division concomitantly with germination. In particular, we demonstrated that the preprophase band was not formed in the spore and that the bipolar prospindle, which is a microtubule structure surrounding the nucleus during prophase, migrated from the center to the periphery in the spore, suggesting that it was the earliest visible sign of cell polarity. We also showed that the occurrence of asymmetric division depended on actin filaments. Our findings regarding the first division of the spore in M. polymorpha will lead to a better model for cell-autonomous asymmetric division in plants.

Note
  • Akihiko Hiroguchi, Kohei Nakamura, Tomomichi Fujita
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 13-17
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー

    Multicellular organisms regulate cell numbers and cell fate by using asymmetric cell division (ACD) and symmetric cell division (SCD) during their development and to adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. A stem cell self-renews and generates differentiated cells. In plants, various types of cells are produced by ACD or SCD; however, the molecular mechanisms of ACD or SCD and the cell division mode switch are largely unknown. The moss Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens is a suitable model to study plant stem cells due to its simple anatomy. Here, we report the cell division mode switch induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in P. patens. ABA is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses and induces round-shape cells, called brood cells, from cylindrical protonemal cells. Although two daughter cells with distinct sizes were produced by ACD in a protonemal stem cell on ABA-free media, the sizes of two daughter cells became similar with ABA treatment. Actin microfilaments were spatially localized on the apices of apical stem cells in protonemata on ABA-free media, but the polar accumulation was lost under the condition of ABA treatment. Moreover, ABA treatment conferred an identical cell fate to the daughter cells in terms of cell division activity. Collectively, the results indicate ABA may suppress the ACD characteristics but evoke SCD in cells. We also noticed that ABA-induced brood cells not only self-renewed but regenerated protonemal cells when ABA was removed from the media, suggesting that brood cells are novel stem cells that are induced by environmental signals in P. patens.

Reviews
  • Akie Shimotohno
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 19-28
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Unlike animals, terrestrial plants are sessile and able to give rise to new organs throughout their lifetime. In the most extreme cases, they can survive for over a thousand years. With such protracted life cycles, plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to adapt to variable environments by coordinating their morphology as well as their growth, and have consequently acquired a high degree of developmental plasticity, which is supported by small groups of long-lived stem cells found in proliferative centers called meristems. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) contain multipotent stem cells and provide a microenvironment that ensures both a self-renewable reservoir, to produce primordia and sustain growth, and a differentiating population that develops into all of the above-ground organs of land plants. The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is expressed in the organizing center and acts as a master regulator to govern shoot stem cell homeostasis. In this review, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling networks that underlie SAM maintenance, and discuss how plants utilize WUS to integrate intrinsic and extrinsic cues.

  • Ye Zhang, Masaaki Umeda, Tatsuo Kakimoto
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 29-36
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/18
    ジャーナル フリー

    Pericycle cells possess proliferative activity long after leaving the root apical meristem. Depending on the developmental stage and external stimuli, pericycle cell division leads to the production of lateral roots, vascular cambium and periderm, and callus. Therefore, pericycle cell division competence underlies root branching and secondary growth, as well as plant regeneration capacity. In this review, we first briefly present an overview of the molecular pathways of the four developmental programs originated, exclusively or partly, from pericycle cells. Then, we provide a review of up-to-date knowledge in the mechanisms determining pericycle cells’ competence to undergo cell division. Furthermore, we discuss directions of future research to further our understanding of the pericycle’s characteristics and functions.

Original Papers
  • Mizuki Yamada, Shunsuke Tanaka, Tatsuya Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro Aida
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 37-42
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    During embryogenesis of eudicots, the apical region of the embryo develops two cotyledon primordia and the shoot meristem. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is dependent on the functionally redundant activities of the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) transcription factors, namely CUC1, CUC2, and CUC3, as well as the phytohormone auxin. However, the relationship between the CUC proteins and auxin has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether the expression of auxin biosynthetic genes is dependent on CUC gene activities. Comprehensive quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the main auxin biosynthetic gene families of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1/TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED and YUCCA (YUC) showed that YUC1 and YUC4 expression levels were lower in cuc double mutant embryos than the expression levels of these genes in wild type embryos. Reporter analysis also revealed that the expression of YUC1 and YUC4 in the cotyledon boundary region was reduced in cuc double mutant embryos. In contrast, the loss of function mutation in the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS gene, a shoot stem cell regulator that acts downstream of the CUC genes, did not markedly affect YUC1 expression levels. These results demonstrate that CUC genes play an important role in the regulation of auxin biosynthetic gene expression during embryogenesis; furthermore, they raise the possibility that the auxin produced by this regulation contributes to cotyledon boundary development.

  • Iwai Ohbayashi, Yuki Sakamoto, Hitomi Kuwae, Hiroyuki Kasahara, Muneta ...
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 43-50
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    In two-step culture systems for efficient shoot regeneration, explants are first cultured on auxin-rich callus-inducing medium (CIM), where cells are activated to proliferate and form calli containing root-apical meristem (RAM)-type stem cells and stem cell niche, and then cultured on cytokinin-rich shoot-inducing medium (SIM), where stem cells and stem cell niche of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are established eventually leading to shoot regeneration. In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis and polar transport in the two-step shoot regeneration culture of Arabidopsis and found that, when they were applied during CIM culture, although callus growth was repressed, shoot regeneration in the subsequent SIM culture was significantly increased. The regeneration-stimulating effect of the auxin biosynthesis inhibitor was not linked with the reduction in the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level. Expression of the auxin-responsive reporter indicated that auxin response was more uniform and even stronger in the explants cultured on CIM with the inhibitors than in the control explants. These results suggested that the shoot regeneration competence of calli was enhanced somehow by the perturbation of the endogenous auxin dynamics, which we discuss in terms of the transformability between RAM and SAM stem cell niches.

  • Akira Iwase, Arika Takebayashi, Yuki Aoi, David S Favero, Shunsuke Wat ...
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 51-58
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    4-Phenylbutyric acid (4PBA) is utilized as a drug to treat urea cycle disorders and is also being studied as a potential anticancer drug that acts via its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activity. During a search to find small molecules that affect plant regeneration in Arabidopsis, we found that 4PBA treatment promotes this process by mimicking the effect of exogenous auxin. Specifically, plant tissue culture experiments revealed that a medium containing 4PBA enhances callus formation and subsequent shoot regeneration. Analyses with auxin-responsive or cytokinin-responsive marker lines demonstrated that 4PBA specifically enhances AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF)-dependent auxin responses. Our western blot analyses showed that 4PBA treatment does not enhance histone acetylation in Arabidopsis, in contrast to butyric acid and trichostatin A, other chemicals often used as HDAC inhibitors, suggesting this mechanism of action does not explain the observed effect of 4PBA on regeneration. Finally, mass spectroscopic analysis and genetic approaches uncovered that 4PBA in Arabidopsis plants is converted to phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known natural auxin, in a manner independent of peroxisomal IBR3-related β-oxidation. This study demonstrates that 4PBA application promotes regeneration in explants via its auxin activity and has potential applications to not only plant tissue culture engineering but also research on the plant β-oxidation pathway.

  • Yuki Kondo
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 59-64
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    For permanent secondary growth in plants, cell proliferation and differentiation should be strictly controlled in the vascular meristem consisting of (pro)cambial cells. A peptide hormone tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor (TDIF) functions to inhibit xylem differentiation, while a plant hormone brassinosteroid (BR) promotes xylem differentiation in (pro)cambial cells. However, it remains unclear how TDIF and BR cooperate to regulate xylem differentiation for the proper maintenance of the vascular meristem. In this study, I developed an easy evaluation method for xylem differentiation frequency in a vascular induction system Vascular cell Induction culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) by utilizing a xylem-specific luciferase reporter line. In this quantitative system, TDIF suppressed and BR promoted xylem differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. Moreover, simultaneous treatment of TDIF and BR with (pro)cambial cells revealed that they can cancel their each other’s effect on xylem differentiation, suggesting a competitive relationship between TDIF and BR. Thus, mutual inhibition of “ON” and “OFF” signal enables the fine-tuned regulation of xylem differentiation in the vascular meristem.

  • Tomoyuki Furuya, Ryuichi Nishihama, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohch ...
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 65-72
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Plants precisely coordinate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation to ensure the continuous development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, members of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) family, which are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases among eukaryotes, play important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation during various developmental processes. However, functional roles of GSK3s in the plant lineages except angiosperms remain to be elucidated. Here, we utilized a model liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, for studies of GSK3, because it has a single GSK3-like kinase, MpGSK. When M. polymorpha was treated with a chemical compound, bikinin, which is known as a specific inhibitor for GSK3-like kinases, growth and morphologies were altered with an expansion of the meristematic region. Similarly, Mpgsk loss-of-function mutants accumulated undifferentiated cell mass with no differentiated tissues. By contrast, overexpression of MpGSK reduced the size of the meristem region. These results suggest that MpGSK plays important roles as a regulator for the balance between cell differentiation and proliferation in M. polymorpha.

  • Naoki Takahashi, Masaaki Umeda
    2022 年 39 巻 1 号 p. 73-78
    発行日: 2022/03/25
    公開日: 2022/03/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Compared with other organisms, plants have an extraordinary capacity for self-repair. Even if the entire tissues, including the stem cells, are resected, most plant species are able to completely regenerate whole tissues. However, the mechanism by which plants efficiently regenerate the stem cell niche during tissue reorganization is still largely unknown. Here, we found that the signaling mediated by plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids is activated during stem cell formation after root tip excision in Arabidopsis. Treatment with brassinazole, an inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis, delayed the recovery of stem cell niche after root tip excision. Regeneration of root tip after resection was also delayed in a brassinosteroid receptor mutant. Therefore, we propose that brassinosteroids participate in efficient root tip regeneration, thereby enabling efficient tissue regeneration to ensure continuous root growth after resection.

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