Skeletal muscle injury is caused by a variety of events, such as muscle laceration, contusions, or strain. Muscle fibers respond to minor damage with immediate repair mechanisms that reseal the cell membrane. On the other hand, repair of irreversibly damaged fibers is achieved by activation of muscle precursor cells. Muscle repair is not always perfect, especially after severe damage, and can lead to excessive fibroblast proliferation that results in the formation of scar tissue within muscle fibers. Remaining scar tissue can impair joint movement, reduce muscular strength, and inhibit exercise ability; therefore, to restore muscle function, minimizing the extent of injury and promoting muscle regeneration are necessary. Various physical agents, such as cold, thermal, electrical stimulation, and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy, have been reported as treatments for muscle healing. Although approaches based on the muscle regeneration process have been under development, the most efficacious physiological treatment for muscle injury remains unclear. In this review, the influence of these physical agents on muscle injury is described with a focus on research using animal models.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a diverse group of chronic lung conditions characterized by dyspnea, exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH), and exercise intolerance. Since activity limitations and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ILD are similar to those in other chronic respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary rehabilitation is also indicated for patients with ILD. This rehabilitation program mainly comprises exercise training and self-management education. Exercise training is the most important component of pulmonary rehabilitation. It significantly improves dyspnea and enhances exercise capacity and HRQoL in patients with ILD. The standard exercise prescription used for COPD is also effective for ILD. However, considering that disease progression and exercise-limiting factors are different in patients with COPD is necessary. Severe EIH, the adverse effects of corticosteroid administration, and comorbidities often lead to difficulty in employing a sufficient exercise intensity. Some modifications in the exercise prescription for individual patients or strategies to minimize EIH and dyspnea are required to optimize training intensity. Since EIH is common and severe in patients with ILD, supplemental oxygen should be provided. In advanced and more severe patients, who have difficulty in performing exercises, energy conservation techniques and the use of energy-saving devices to improve and maintain the patients' activities of daily living may be effective.
Objective: Knee pain (KP) and low-back pain (LBP) are common sites of pain and major public health issues among older adults. We investigated the combined association of bilateral KP and LBP with objectively measured physical activity (PA) among adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: We recruited 150 knee OA adults and measured steps and PA intensity, including sedentary behavior (SB), low PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA, using an accelerometer. KP and LBP were measured using a numerical rating scale. They were classified into 4 groups based on the presence of KP and LBP: with the only unilateral KP (UKP), with the combined UKP and LBP (UKP and LBP), with the bilateral KP (BKP), and with the combined bilateral KP and LBP (BKP and LBP). One-way analysis of covariance was performed to compare physical activity variables (intensity or steps) between the four groups. Results: Overall, 126 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of UKP, BKP, UKP and LBP, and BKP and LBP were 29.4%, 23.8%, 18.3%, and 28.6%. The proportion of SB was higher in the BKP and LBP group than in the other groups (F = 6.51, p < 0.01). The proportion of LPA was lower in the BKP and LBP group than in the other groups (F = 6.21, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The proportions of SB and LPA were significantly worse in knee OA adults with BKP and LBP than in those with UKP. Our findings may be a basis for considering knee OA adults for improving PA.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess physical function such as lower limb function and Activities of Daily Living after surgery for proximal femoral fractures ( unstable medial femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture). Methods: This study enrolled 68 patients with proximal femoral fractures. Isometric knee extension strength (IKES), the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) hip score, and the number of days required to develop straight leg raising, transfer, and T-caneassisted gait abilities to become independent were assessed. Patients were classified based on the types of proximal femoral fractures, namely unstable medial femoral neck fracture (bipolar hip arthroplasty [BHA] group), stable trochanteric fracture (S group), and unstable trochanteric fracture (US group). Results: IKES and the JOA hip score were significantly better in the BHA group than in the S and US groups. IKES and the JOA hip score were significantly worse in the US group than in the BHA and S groups. Both transfer and T-cane-assisted gait abilities of patients in the BHA and S groups were indifferent. However, all physical functions were significantly worse in the US group. Conclusions: Our study results suggested that physical therapists plan the different rehabilitation program for the patients with proximal femoral fractures who were classified into three types, namely unstable medial femoral neck fracture, stable trochanteric fracture, and unstable trochanteric fracture, instead of two types.
Objective: The aim of this study was to apply a novel method to measure excitation-contraction coupling time (ECCT) in normal soleus muscles. Methods: We performed simultaneous recordings of soleus compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and foot movement-related potential (MRP), and measured ankle plantar flexion torque in 36 healthy subjects. We calculated ECCT and examined the relations between CMAP, MRP, ECCT and ankle plantar flexion torque. Results: Statistical analyses established reference ranges (mean ± SE) for CMAP (13.4 ± 0.9 mV), MRP (5.3 ± 0.4 m/s2), ECCT (5.2 ± 0.1 ms), torque (85.9 ± 6.4 Nm) and torque/body weight (1.4 ± 0.1 Nm/kg). The torque showed a positive linear correlation with CMAP (p = 0.041) and a negative linear correlation with ECCT (p = 0.045). Conclusion: Soleus ECCT can be recorded easily, and is useful to assess the impairment of E-C coupling in muscles of the lower extremities.
Objective: To estimate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of quadriceps and inspiratory muscle strength after a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Eighty-five COPD patients were included. Quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (QMVC) was measured. We measured maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax), the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), the chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ) and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score (mMRC). All measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the PRP. The MCID was calculated using anchor-based (using 6MWD, CRQ, and mMRC as possible anchor variables) and distribution-based (half standard deviation and 1.96 standard error of measurement) approaches. Changes in the five variables were compared in patients with and without changes in QMVC or PImax >MCID for each variable. Results: Sixty-nine COPD patients (age 75±6 years) were analysed. QMVC improved by 2.4 (95%CI 1.1-3.7) kgf, PImax by 5.8 (2.7-8.8) cmH2O, 6MWD by 21 (11-32) meters and CRQ by 3.9 (1.6-6.3) points. The MCID of QMVC and PImax was 3.3-7.5 kgf and 17.2-17.6 cmH2O, respectively. The MCID of QMVC (3.3 kgf) could differentiate individuals with significant improvement in 6MWD and PImax from those without. Conclusion: The MCID of QMVC (3.3 kgf) can identify a meaningful change in quadriceps muscle strength after a PRP. The MCID of PImax (17.2 cmH2O) should be used with careful consideration, because the value is estimated using distributionbased method.
Objectives: This study was to clarify changes in physical function and quality of life (QOL) for postoperative, and to examine the influence of the amount of physical activity on these variables. Methods: This study included 29 patients who underwent gastrointestinal cancer surgery. The QOL measurement was used to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for preoperative and 2nd and 4th postoperative weeks. Physical function measured knee extension strength, 4 m walk time, 5 times sit-to-stand test, and 6-minute walk for preoperative and 1st and 2nd postoperative weeks. The amount of physical activity score was based on METs-hours, which is estimated from cumulative physical activity. As basic characteristics were investigated cancer stage, comorbidities and complications, and operative. Statistical analysis was repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to observe postoperative changes in physical function and QOL. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to the parameters of physical function and QOL affected by the physical activity score were investigated. Results: Physical function decreased postoperatively and generally improved 2nd postoperative week. Though scores on the QOL functional scales improved, some items did not improve sufficiently. Multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity score had an effect on constipation and emotion functioning. Conclusions: Improvement in symptom scales is not sufficient in a short period of time, and they need to be followed up by increasing the amount of physical activity and promoting instantaneous exercise.
Objective: Early mobilization and rehabilitation has become common and expectations for physical therapists working in intensive care units have increased in Japan. The objective of this study was to establish consensus-based minimum clinical practice standards for physical therapists working in intensive care units in Japan. It also aimed to make an international comparison of minimum clinical practice standards in this area. Methods: In total, 54 experienced physical therapists gave informed consent and participated in this study. A modified Delphi method with questionnaires was used over three rounds. Participants rated 272 items as "essential/unknown/non-essential". Consensus was considered to be reached on items that over 70% of physical therapists rated as "essential" to clinical practice in the intensive care unit. Results: Of the 272 items in the first round, 188 were deemed essential. In round 2, 11 of the 62 items that failed to reach consensus in round 1 were additionally deemed essential. No item was added to the "essential" consensus in round 3. In total, 199 items were therefore deemed essential as a minimum standard of clinical practice. Participants agreed that 42 items were not essential and failed to reach agreement on 31 others. Identified 199 items were different from those in the UK and Australia due to national laws, cultural and historical backgrounds. Conclusions: This is the first study to develop a consensus-based minimum clinical practice standard for physical therapists working in intensive care units in Japan.
Objective: Muscle atrophy is associated with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) -related outcomes in patients with malignant lymphoma (ML). However, the impact of ASCT on muscle mass remains unclear in patients with ML. The aims of this study were to investigate changes in muscle mass and risk profiles for muscle atrophy after ASCT. Method: We enrolled 40 patients with refractory ML (age 58 [20-74] years, female/male 16/24, body mass index (BMI) 21.1 kg/m2 [17.1-29.6]). Psoas muscle mass was assessed using the psoas muscle index (PMI) before and after ASCT. Statistical analysis used: Independent factors associated with a severe decrease rate of change in PMI were evaluated by decision-tree analysis, respectively. Results: PMI was significantly decreased after ASCT (4.61 vs. 4.55 cm2/m2; P=0.0425). According to the decision-tree analysis, the regimen was selected as the initial split. The rates of change in PMI were −5.57% and −3.97% for patients administered MCEC and LEED, respectively. In patients who were administered LEED, the second branching factor was BMI. In patients with BMI < 20.3 kg/m2, the rate of change in PMI was −7.16%. On the other hand, the rate of change in PMI was 4.05% for patients with BMI ≥ 20.3 kg/m2. Conclusion: We demonstrated that muscle mass decreased after ASCT in patients with ML. Patients who received MCEC and patients with low BMI were at risk for a decrease in muscle mass.
Objective: Postoperative complications and non-periprosthetic fractures (NPPFs), which was defined as a fracture existing non- periprosthetic implant, after total hip arthroplasty (THA) have a negative effect on the patients' ability to perform activities of daily living. Thus, investigating these incidences of patients after THA will be valuable as it lead to a more strategic physical therapy interventions and advanced research to prevent these problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of postoperative complications related to implants and NPPFs in patients after THA, a more than 10-year follow-up. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. A total 892 patients with hip osteoarthritis who underwent primary THA were analyzed (age at surgery was 45-79 years; 805 women; the average follow-up period was 12.4-year). The postoperative complications related to implants and NPPFs were calculated using data from their medical records. Results: The postoperative complications occurred in 37 patients, and NPPFs occurred in 72 patients, who were significantly older, and hip and knee OA diagnosis, compared to patients without NPPFs ( p <.05). The most common cause of NPPFs was minor trauma. In patients aged ≥ 65 years, significantly more NPPFs occurred during the first year after surgery ( p <.05). Conclusion: More than 10-year after THA, the incidence of NPPFs was higher than that of postoperative complications related to implants. Older patients who had hip and knee OA were a significantly higher risk of developing NPPFs due to falls within the first year after surgery.