Objective: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitation strategies in animal models of stroke and their correlation with human stroke studies. Methods: General description of a stroke, functional recovery, and rehabilitation modalities were included from published studies in the field of animal models of cerebral ischemia and ischemia–reperfusion. Results: In stroke survivors, rehabilitation plays a significant role to improve motor function, cognition, and other subtle behaviors. Targeted pharmacological agents, including neuroprotective drugs, are helpful in animal models of stroke. However, no drug has yet been found that meets the criteria that would make it the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for human stroke. Instead, the rehabilitation of stroke in humans is limited to physical and occupational therapy, speech therapy, environmental enrichment, and social activities, as well as spiritual and family support. Conclusion: Studies on stroke injury and the significance of stroke animals’ rehabilitation, including physical and pharmacological, approaches are highlighted.
We perform physical therapy combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in stroke patients with hemiplegia in the maintenance phase with the intent of improving the support of paralyzed leg. In gait evaluation in patients with hemiplegia, it is important to assess elements related to coordination carefully. rTMS therapy is effective in alleviating the tension of upper limbs. As rTMS helps upper-limb swing to become evident during gait, it makes trunk rotation necessary for left–right coordination appear more easily. As a result, rTMS has potential for improved upper-limb swing or trunk rotation. Post-rTMS therapy may prepare for the environment suitable for hip extending the stance phase of the paralyzed side. In physical therapy, it is advisable to practice standing up, maintaining standing posture or walking by making good use of these effects. We conduct practices in combination with the following: standing up focusing on load evenly distributed on both sides, standing on slant-board training, which enables forward shift of center of mass, walking by fixating upper limbs to the back of the body with the intent of extending the stance phase of the paralyzed side, and increasing trunk rotation. It is also necessary to discuss the combination with injection with botulinum toxin, which suppresses spasticity of ankle plantar flexors with the physician. Gait is associated with a variety of factors and has significant intrapatient and interpatient variations. In this regard, physiotherapists are required to develop a treatment program based on a quantitative evaluation, especially, in patients with hemiplegia.
Objective: This study aimed to understand the long-term transition of exercise tolerance in patients on phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and clarify the characteristics of patients with a high risk of declined exercise tolerance during the first emergency declaration. Methods: Patients who participated in phase III outpatient CR before the first emergency declaration and those who performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing were at ≥2-time points: before and at 3 or 12 months post-emergency declaration. Exercise tolerance transition at 3-time points was analyzed, and whether different social background factors affected the peak oxygen uptake (VO2) transition method remains to be examined. Results: A total of 101 (median age 74.0 years, 69% men), and both peak VO2 and anaerobic threshold (AT) significantly declined from pre-declaration to 3 months post-declaration but recovered to levels likely similar from pre-declaration at 12 months (peak VO2: from 17.3 to 16.7 to 18.7 mL/min/kg; AT: from 11.8 to 11.2 to 11.6 mL/min/kg). Further, patients with multiple comorbidities at pre-declaration had a significantly lower peak VO2 at 3 months (−1.0 mL/min/kg, p = 0.025) and it remained significantly low in those with a slower gait speed at 12 months after lifting the emergency declaration (−2.5 mL/min/kg, p = 0.009). Conclusion: The emergency declaration declined the exercise tolerance in patients on phase III CR but improved to pre-declaration levels over time, but more likely declined in patients with multiple comorbidities during pre-declaration and those with low-gait speeds were less likely to improve their declined exercise tolerance.
Objective: Generally, low-intensity training is recommended as selective training of the infraspinatus muscle. This study aimed to investigate whether an 8-week intervention of low-intensity, slow-movement, external rotation exercise of the shoulder led to an increase in muscle strength with shoulder external rotation and cross-sectional area (CSA) infraspinatus muscle. Methods: Sixteen healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to the low-intensity and slow-movement (LS) group (N = 8) or the normal-intensity and normal-speed (NN) group (N = 8). The LS and NN groups performed shoulder external rotation exercises with low intensity and slow movement, and normal intensity and normal speed, respectively. The exercise session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, which were performed three times per week for 8 weeks. We measured the CSA of the infraspinatus and muscle strength of the shoulder external rotation before and after the 8-week intervention. Results: A significant increase in infraspinatus CSA from baseline to 8 weeks was found in the LS group (7.3% of baseline) but not in the NN group. No significant differences were found in the muscle strength of shoulder external rotation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that low-intensity exercise of the infraspinatus is effective for muscle hypertrophy when performed with slow movement. This finding may help patients who should avoid excessive stress in the early phase of rehabilitation.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate if leg cycling could reduce lower extremity spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). In addition, we investigated whether the intervention could cause changes in the modulation of presynaptic inhibition. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study, with pretest–posttest for 1 group. Participants in this experiment were eight adult patients with CP with lower extremity spasticity. Spasticity parameters assessed were the amplitude of soleus maximum Hoffmann’s reflex (Hmax) and maximum angular velocity (MAV) of knee flexion measured using the pendulum test. D1 inhibition, which seems to be related to the presynaptic inhibition, was recorded by measuring soleus Hoffmann’s reflex (H-reflex) with conditioned electric stimuli to the common peroneal nerve. Results: D1 inhibition was significantly enhanced immediately by the cycling intervention. The amplitude of the soleus Hmax was significantly depressed, and there was significant difference in Hmax/maximum M-wave. The MAV was increased due to inhibition of the stretch reflex. Conclusion: Leg cycling suppressed stretch reflex and H-reflex, and caused plasticity of inhibitory circuits in patients with CP with lower extremity spasticity. These findings strongly suggest that lower extremity spasticity can be improved by cycling movements.