[Purpose] To investigate changes in hemodynamics during plantar flexion exercise at three different loads. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 19 sedentary healthy males with a mean age of 20.4 years, mean body mass of 63.5 kg, mean height of 172.2 cm, and a body mass index of 22.4 kg/m2. Hemodynamics were measured using impedance cardiography in the sitting position before, during and after ankle plantar flexion at loads of 20, 50 and 80% of the maximum plantar flexor strength. [Results] Compared with their values before and after exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance showed significant changes during exercise at 80% exercise loads. Also, there were significant changes in heart rate, mean blood pressure, total peripheral resistance and stroke volume between before and after exercise. [Conclusion] During resistance exercise, recording of hemodynamic parameters might be a necessary safety measure.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent stretching exercise on disuse atrophy of the rat soleus muscle with respect to site and the change over time in the inhibitory effect on atrophy. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-three 8-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: a control group which was reared under standard conditions (C0/3/7/10/14), a hind-limb suspension group (HS3/7/10/14), and a stretching exercise group (ST3/7/10/14). After the completion of each experimental period the soleus muscle was cut into proximal, middle, and distal samples, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured. [Results] The CSA of ST14 was significantly greater than that of HS14. The reduction rate of the CSA in the middle and distal regions of ST14 was small compared to that of HS14. [Conclusion] The results suggest that disuse atrophy is altered over time by stretching exercise, and that there are differences in effect among the longitudinal sites of the soleus muscle.
[Purpose] Focusing on hip flexion muscles, knee joint extension muscles and ankle plantar flexion muscles, we investigated their age-related changes in their roles in walking and maximum step length. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven women were divided into four groups, a young group, a young-old group, an old-old group, and a very old group, and their physical functions and ability to do activities were investigated and compared. [Results] At maximum step length and maximum gait, significant correlations were found between the young group and the hip flexion muscle use, the young-old group and knee extension muscle use, and the old-old group with knee extension and ankle plantar flexion use, but no significant correlations were found for the very old group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the relative contributions of muscle groups to walking and maximum step length change with age.
[Purpose] This study conducted a field survey of sarcopenia among geriatric inpatients to investigate its relation to nutrition, activities of daily living, and cognitive ability. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty geriatric inpatients were divided into sarcopenia and no sarcopenia groups using the Skeletal Muscle Index (SMI). Outcome measures were the type of disease, the type of ward, the length of hospital stay, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), clinical tests (total protein, albumin), SMI, and the Mini Mental State Examination. [Results] There was no difference in rates of sarcopenia between the genders. Patients in the long-term care ward and with Musculoskeletal Ambulation Disability Symptom Complex had higher prevalences of sarcopenia. There were no significant correlations between SMI and the other measured parameters. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, only the FIM on admission was associated with sarcopenia. [Conclusion] The results suggest that sarcopenia among geriatric inpatients not capable of independent walking is associated with ADL on admission.
[Purpose] To clarify whether or not an air mattress affects respiratory function in recumbency. [Subjects and Methods] The respiratory functions of 19 healthy subjects and 10 subjects with decreased thoracic compliance were measured while they were lying on the air mattress and an ordinary mattress, and compared. The following 10 items were measured: ventilation volume, one-minute ventilation volume, dead space ventilation ratio, number of breaths, expiration and inspiration times, total respiration time, mean expiratory and inspiratory air flows, and the timing of abdominal elevation in inspiration. [Result] No significant differences in any of the items in either of the groups were found between the air mattress and the ordinary mattress. [Conclusion] The results clearly show that the air mattress had no adverse effects on respiratory function.
[Purpose] To clarify the effect on gait velocity of gait training at different walking speeds while using the HAL® robot suit. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 13 first-time stroke patients in the rehabilitation ward of our hospital. Wearing the HAL® suit, the subjects performed gait training at their preferred walking speed on one day, and at a fast walking speed on the following day. The 10-m walking time was measured before and after each training session as well as at 2 days after the fast walking speed training. [Result] No difference was found after training at the preferred walking speed, but after training at the fast walking speed and 2 days later, significant improvements in the maximum walking speed were observed. [Conclusion] The results suggest that it is easier to obtain an improvement in the walking speed of stroke patients through gait training with HAL® at a fast walking speed.
[Purpose] This study examined whether motor imagery ability affects the excitability of the spinal neural function. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated the effect of motor imagery of finger opposition movements with differing complexities on the excitability of spinal neural function using F-wave analysis. The subjects were 30 healthy adults who were divided into high and low motor imagery ability groups based on their responses to the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ). F-waves were recorded under the following four conditions: at rest; during motor imagery of opposition movement of the right thumb and index finger (task 1); during motor imagery of opposition movement of the right thumb and index, middle, ring, and little fingers (task 2); and during motor imagery of opposition movement of the right thumb and index, ring, middle, and little fingers (task 3). [Results] In the low motor imagery ability group, the amplitude ratio of F/M was significantly higher than that at rest during tasks 2 and 3. [Conclusion] The findings of the present study suggest that individual differences in motor imagery ability possibly influence the excitability of spinal neural function during motor imagery.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between minimum toe clearance (MTC) and sagittal joint angles during walking under single- (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions. [Subjects and Methods] There were 15 older (68.8 ± 4.9 years) and 15 younger (23.2 ± 2.9 years) participants. Gait kinematics (non-dominant side MTC and sagittal angles) were evaluated under the two conditions: walking normally (ST), and walking while performing a calculation (DT). [Results] In the younger group, MTC correlated with knee flexion angles under the ST and DT conditions, while MTC correlated negatively with pelvic anteversion in the older group, especially under the DT condition. [Conclusion] These results suggest that cognitive tasks that tilt the pelvis forward may decrease the MTC, and may lead to falls during walking.
[Purpose] This study investigated the factors affecting the nutritional state of elderly subjects with care needs, and their relationships with physical function, depression, and isolation. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 39 persons with care needs aged 65 or over. They were surveyed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), and to investigate the factors affecting the results, relationships with age, depressive tendency, and physical function, isolation were also investigated. [Result] Factors affecting MNA-SF were falls in the past year, BMI, and the geriatric depression scale, GDS5. [Conclusion] Rather than checking physical function, there is a need to regularly check BMI and the depressive tendency, poor nutrition of elderly persons with care needs.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of eye movement on standing postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 healthy adults. Standing postural sway was measured and compared under four conditions: with a fixed gaze (FG); with the eyes smoothly pursuing a moving target (SP); a simple reaction task in response to an elicited saccadic eye movement (SS); and a choice reaction task in response to an elicited saccadic eye movement (CS). [Result] The CS total sway path length was significantly shorter than that of CS, and the total sway path length and circumferential sway area of SP were significantly larger than those of the other three conditions. [Conclusion] We consider the effect on postural standing sway due to eye movement in movement preparatory processes reflects differences in coordination of eye movement and postural control due to differences in eye movement control rather than the effect of cognitive load.
[Purpose] We examined the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of measurements of fascial displacement and muscle stiffness made by ultrasound imaging. [Subjects and Methods] We imaged the lower limbs of 10 healthy individuals (20 limbs) with no medical history of orthopedic disease. The moving distances of the superficial and deep layers of the fascia in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius during passive dorsal flexion, and muscle stiffness with the ankle joint in the neutral position were measured by ultrasound, and the measurements were repeated after four days. [Results] For all measurements, the intraclass correlation coefficients were “almost perfect (0.81∼1.00)”, and there were no fixed or proportional biases in the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities. For the intra-rater reliability, the 95% confidence intervals for the minimum detectable change (MDC95) in the superficial and deep layers were 0.24 mm and 0.34 mm, respectively, and 5.94 for the muscle stiffness. With regard to inter-rater reliability, MDC95 of the superficial and deep layers was 0.08 mm and 0.10 mm, respectively, and 1.54 for muscle stiffness. [Conclusion] Both the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of this measure method were high after four days.
[Purpose] Young and elderly adults performed walking and standing-walking (ST) tasks, and the number of steps taken before achieving normal gait and the characteristics of transitional gait were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 elderly females and 10 healthy young females. Step length and gait speed were measured at the maximum gait in both tasks, and in the ST task, the anterior transfer speed of the center of gravity (COG) and motor function were also compared. [Results] In the walking task there were no differences, but in the ST task the elderly subjects took one more step to establish normal gait. The anterior transfer speed of COG and motor function of the elderly subjects in the ST task were significantly lower than those of the young subjects. [Conclusion] A difference was found in the number of steps needed to achieve normal gait in the ST task. We consider decrease in the anterior transfer speed of COG was an influencing factor, and that a possible cause is decrease of motor function due to aging.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the reliability of measurement of subjective visual vertical (SVV) using original software developed for healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy adults participated in this study. SVV was measured using the software. For the measurement of SVV, a luminous rod was presented on a computer screen at eye level to the seated subjects. The luminous rod was rotated in the coronal plane until the subject sensed it was vertical. The mean value of eight trials was calculated. One physical therapist evaluated SVV at the beginning of the study and one week later. The intra-class reliability (ICC) and measurement error of the 95% confidence interval of the minimal detectable change (MDC95) were used to estimate the reliability. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.8-0.9. MDC95 of the SVV measurements were 0.7-0.8°. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the measurement of SVV using the software is highly reliable.
[Purpose] To investigate whether use of a pedal wheelchair affects the daily living activities and gait ability of dialysis inpatients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten dialysis inpatients were divided into two groups. The control group received physical therapy, and the experimental group performed pedal wheelchair exercise in addition to physical therapy. The experiment was conducted over a benchmark period of 8 months and an intervention period of 13 months; and the evaluation items were 10-m walking time (10mT), 6-min walking distance (6MD), and the Barthel Index (BI). The effect was analyzed using the percentage of non-overlapping data (PND). [Result] The numbers of subjects showing an effect according to PND in the experimental and control groups were respectively 3 and 0 for 6MD, 3 and 1 for 10mT, and 1 and 0 for BI. [Conclusion] Since the experimental group showed a certain level of improvement in gait ability, we consider that the pedal wheelchair is an effective intervention.
[Purpose] Focusing on the frequency of going out, this study investigated whether the 3-meter zig-zag walking test (3ZW) is a useful index for assessing the gait ability needed by the elderly for going out. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 elderly persons aged 65 years or over who were regularly visiting a medical facility. The subjects were classified into two groups, based on their going out frequencies, and logistic regression analysis was conducted using their results in the 3ZW, timed up-and-go test (TUG), and 10-m walking test (10WT) as independent variables. In addition, using the walking speeds of the two groups, the most statistically valid 3ZW cut-off value was determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). [Results] The 3ZW was determined to be a variable affecting the frequency of going out. The cut-off value for the 3ZW was judged from the ROC to be 11.1 s. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the gait ability needed for going out can be judged using the cut-off value as a boundary.
[Purpose] A questionnaire survey was conducted to clarify the factors associated with low back pain among females employed in medical and care-giver occupations. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred thirty-nine female employees (mean age, 41.9 years) working in medical and nursing care facilities in Aomori Prefecture were surveyed, and valid responses were received from ninty-eight women (70.5%). [Result] Seventy-nine persons (80.6%) were complained low back pain. Those dealing with loads heavier than 30 kg for a third of their work time, and those with irregular menstruation had high rates of low back pain. No significant differences were found between those with or without parturition or breast-feeding histories. [Conclusion] The low back pain among female employees were shown by employee duties and menstrual conditions.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute electric stimulation on flow-mediated vasomotor function. [Subjects and Methods] Eight young healthy men participated in this study. Electrical stimulation was applied to the right forearm for 30 minutes. Before and after electrical stimulation, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) were measured at the right brachial artery. [Results] FMD and L-FMC tended to increase after electrical stimulation, but no significant differences were observed between pre- and post-stimulation. In contrast, FMD+L-FMC significantly increased after electrical stimulation compared to before stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggest that acute electric stimulation affects flow-mediated vasoconstrictor and dilator functions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effect of electrical parameter settings on the vascular function.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of pelvic tilt and upper limb position on trunk rotation range in upright sitting. [Subjects and Methods] The trunk muscle activities and passive range of motion (ROM) of 20 healthy university students were measured. Under two conditions of pelvic tilt and upper limb position, the laterality of trunk rotation during upright sitting was measured. The differences among the conditions were divided into left and right and analyzed using two-way ANOVA, and the relationship of trunk rotational ROM with muscle strength was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients. [Results] Irrespective of the upper limb position, significant differences were found in the trunk rotation range with change in pelvic tilt; however, no significant changes were found between the upper limb positions. Furthermore, in the correct sitting posture, significant correlations were found between trunk rotational range and trunk range of motion and muscle strength. [Conclusion] The results suggest that changes in pelvic position affect the rotational range of the trunk, and in a correct sitting posture they correlates with trunk muscle strength.
[Purpose] To investigate the influence of the degree of self-determination on exam results and willingness to learn in the motivation of students aiming to become physical therapists. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults, average age: 19.1 ± 2.5 years. Degree of self-determination in aiming to become a physical therapist and values of aspects of willingness to learn were assessed using a paper questionnaire. [Results] Significant positive correlations were found between intrinsic motivation and interest, personal attainment values, and exam results, as well as between identification regulation and public attainment values. Significant negative correlations were found between extrinsic regulation and exam results, as well as helplessness and interest, private attainment values and exam results. [Conclusion] The results indicated the possibility that the degree of self-determination among those aiming to become physical therapists influences their willingness to learn and their exam results.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the learning effects of whole-task and part-task practices of walking with prism glasses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy persons (12 men and 8 women) participated in this study. They wore prism glasses causing right-left reversal of the visual field, and were asked to walk 5 m, turn around, and walk back 5 m to the starting point at their preferred speed. They performed the walking task once under each of three conditions: one whole-task and two part-task practices. Walk time, number of course corrections, steps, gait cycle time, muscle activities of the right tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle, and trunk and ankle angles were measured during the walking tasks. [Results] The indices of walking performance and muscles activities in the lower limb showed no significant differences among the whole-task and part-task practices. However, walking time after whole-task practice was shorter than that of the part-tasks. [Conclusion] No significant changes in walking performance with prism glasses was observed after both whole-task and part-task practices.
[Purpose] The relationship of sympathetic nerve activity to pulse wave velocity in healthy adolescents was examined. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-nine students, 59 males and 40 females (19.0 ± 1.4 years), were recruited for measurement of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis, arterial stiffness by PWV (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity), central blood pressure (BP) by the Augmentation Index (AI: defined as a percentage of amplification of late-systole reflected wave to pulse pressure) and autonomic nerve activity by heart rate variability. [Results] PWV in both genders was positively associated with BP; however, there was no correlation between BP and sympathetic nerve activity. Only in males, PWV showed a significant positive correlation with indices of sympathetic nerve activity and an inverse correlation with the index of parasympathetic nerve activity. [Conclusion] Arterial stiffness in males is modulated by increased sympathetic nerve activity, which is independent of BP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the rate of force development (RFD) in the lower limbs and performance of quick movements at different loads. [Subjects] Twenty-two healthy females participated in this study. [Methods] Maximal strength (MS) and RFD in the lower limb muscles, as well as the times taken to complete a quick squat (QStime) and vertical jump height (VJheight) were measured. The correlations among these values were calculated. [Results] VJheight correlated more strongly with MS than with RFD. In contrast, QStime correlated significantly and more strongly with RFD than with MS. In addition, among the values normalized by MS, there were significant correlations between QStime and RFD, but no significant correlations between VJheight and RFD. [Conclusion] These results suggest that RFD is more important than MS in quick movements under low loads.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between going out with the degree of physical functional recovery of femoral fracture patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were first time femoral fracture patients in a rehabilitation hospital after surgery who were 36 elderly persons aged 65 years or over. Physical therapists asked the patients about their frequencies of going out before fracture and classified them by purpose. Recovery of physical function was defined as the difference between the function at the time of hospital discharge and the function at one month after surgery. [Results] The recovery of physical function was not associated with age, sex or cognitive function. However, the frequency of going out and frequency of shopping before fracture was significantly associated with physical function recovery. [Conclusion] The frequency of going out and frequency of shopping was related to the recovery of physical function of femoral fracture patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the time duration of intermittent stretching on the inhibitory effects of disuse atrophy in the rat soleus muscle and to compare these effects across different sites along its longitudinal axis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: control, hind-limb suspension (H), hind-limb suspension and stretching for 10 minutes every day (LST), and hind-limb suspension and stretching for 5 minutes every day (SST). At the end of the suspension period, the soleus muscle was excised and cut into proximal, middle, and distal samples, and the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured. [Results] The cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was significantly higher in the LST and SST groups than in the H group in the middle and distal regions, and it was also higher in the SST group than in the LST group in the distal region. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the effect of intermittent stretching differs among the longitudinal sites of the rat soleus muscle, and depends on the duration of the stretching time.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of a newly developed toe-heel loading platform, using the iEMG muscle activities of the lower limbs. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight lower limbs of 19 healthy males (average age 21.6 ± 2.0 years old) were the subjects. The iEMGs of their lower limbs were measured while standing on the toe-heel loading platform, and while standing on flat ground. The muscles examined were the bilateral flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digitorum brevis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius medial head. Raw iEMG data were processed by integrating the iEMG and normalizing the values to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and %MVC values were compared between the two conditions. [Results] When standing on the toe-heel loading platform, the flexor hallucis brevis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, and semitendinosus showed significant increases in %MVC. [Conclusion] The results suggest that standing on the toe-heel loading platform significantly increases the muscle activities of the lower limb.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the current state of awareness regarding rehabilitation, diagnosis and training among general practice residents. [Subjects and Methods] Eight residents were included in this study. Seven were part of a senior training program for family doctors and general practitioners, and one was a cardiovascular resident. The qualitative research involved conducting focus group interviews and then analyzing the results using Steps for Coding and Theorization. [Results] Four basic concepts were extracted from the interviews: the ability of general practitioners to implement rehabilitation, a weak connection to rehabilitation work, the results of attending lectures, and the state of rehabilitation training among general practice residents. [Conclusion] A rehabilitation training system is needed for residents who are expected to become family doctors or to assume similar duties.
[Purpose] This study assessed the thickness of the transverse abdominal muscle while walking, and before and after draw-in (D). The physical responses during walking and while being aware of draw-in were also evaluated. [Subjects and Methods] We measured the thickness of the transverse abdominal muscle using ultrasonography while walking before and after draw-in. Furthermore, the measurements were performed on a treadmill (4 km/h) under three different conditions: natural walk (N), draw-in walk (D), and exercise walk (E). The three conditions were randomized. Subjects were asked to perform two tasks: task 1 was performed by 10 subjects and task 2 was performed by 20 subjects. [Results] In task 1, thickness of the transverse abdominal muscles measured before and after D were 6.1 ± 1.0 mm and 6.4 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The difference in thickness was not significant between before and after D, implying that contraction of the transverse abdominal muscle was sustained. In task 2 the rate of consumption of oxygen (VO2) expressed relative to the body weight under the N, D, and E conditions were 11.2 ± 1.2 ml/mln•kg, 13.0 ± 2.7 ml/mln•kg, and 14.5 ± 2.2 ml/mln•kg, respectively. The VO2 significantly increased under the D and E conditions compared with N, and under the E condition compared with D. [Conclusion] The results indicated that the transverse abdominal muscle thickness were not significantly different between before and after D. This implies that contraction of the transverse abdominal muscle is sustained. Moreover, the results suggest draw-in is more effective for energy metabolism than natural walking.
[Purpose] To clarify the differences in hip internal and external rotation muscle strengths, and their ratio, between subjects with and without a history of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 22 healthy females and 9 females with a history of ACL injury. Hip internal and external rotation muscle strengths of the two groups were measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and compared together with their ratio using the Mann-Whitney U-test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the hip external muscle strengths of the two groups; however, in the ACL injury group, the hip internal rotation muscle strength and the internal:external muscle strength ratio were significantly larger. [Conclusion] Subjects in the ACL injury group had imbalance in the strength ratio of the hip internal and external rotation muscles. Therefore, there is a possibility that physical therapy intervention to restore this muscle strength ratio to close to that of healthy individuals would be beneficial for them.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationships of functional status at the time of discharge with the recovery prognoses of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and life-space in the early stage after discharge to home of elderly orthopedic patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 32 elderly patients (average age 77.3 years) who were capable of cane gait before hospitalization and were discharged from hospital to their homes. We measured their IADL and life-space monthly for three months after discharge, and examined their relationships with functional status at the time of discharge using Spearman’s correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis. [Results] Cognitive function showed significant relationships with IADL at all the time points after discharge; and the Timed Up and Go test and 5-m walking time showed significant relationships with life-space at 1 and 3 months after discharge. [Conclusion] We clarified the relationships of the recovery prognoses of IADL and life-space with cognitive and motor functions in the early stage after discharge, and the possibility of their prediction.
[Purpose] We developed criteria for crawling motion analysis, for the purpose of understanding motor learning processes from changes in crawling motion, and investigated their reliability. [Subjects and Methods] Ten examiners (4 with experience, 2 novices, and 4 trainees) used a video recording of the crawling motion during 6-months to code the movements using the analysis criteria on two occasions. The reliability was ascertained using the levels of intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and the variation number. [Results] With the exception of the novices, the levels of agreement of the code and variation number were confirmed to be sufficiently reliable. The results also suggest that prior training increase the reliability. [Conclusion] The results suggest the method we have developed is objective.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of muscle activation during sustained contraction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients using multi-channel surface electromyography (sEMG). [Subjects and Methods] Nine male PD patients and 10 healthy male subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects performed a sustained isometric knee extension at 10% maximal voluntary contraction for 120 s. Multi-channel sEMG signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle. To evaluate patterns in spatial sEMG potential distribution, absolute root mean square value maps were created at 15, 60, and 120 s from 59 pairs of data. To evaluate temporal changes in the spatial sEMG potential distribution, correlation coefficients for the same electrode locations were calculated at 15, 60 and 120 s. [Results] Correlation coefficients for PD patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy subjects at 120 s. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PD patients might activate limited numbers of the same motor units continuously during sustained contraction.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the pain and numbness experienced by a patient with spinal cord infarction. [Subjects and Methods] The subject was a single case exhibiting neuropathic pain due to spinal infarction after posterior spinal artery infarction. Electrodes were placed over dermatomes in the L3 and L5 regions, and TENS was delivered using a frequency modulated, 50-μs, symmetric, biphasic pulse at a perceived intensity for 30 min a day, at 3-day intervals. [Result] After the first treatment, pain and numbness in the L3 and L5 regions were alleviated; however, after the second and third treatments no immediate or lasting effects were observed. [Conclusion] Although TENS has an immediate effect, there is a possibility that it elicits abnormal neural excitation after treatment.
[Purpose] To evaluate the effects of ipsilateral and bilateral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the legs of two patients following hip fracture surgery. [Subjects] Patient 1 had an intertrochanteric fracture, and Patient 2 had a femoral neck fracture. [Methods] Patient 1 received ipsilateral and bilateral TENS for 30 minutes for 3 days after surgery. Patient 2 received ipsilateral TENS for 1 hour on the first postoperative day and ipsilateral and bilateral TENS for 1 hour on the second and third postoperative days. Pain was recorded on a numerical rating scale (NRS) before and after TENS. [Results] Ipsilateral and bilateral TENS decreased NRS of both patients. There was a score difference of one between ipsilateral and bilateral TENS in patient 2. [Conclusion] Ipsilateral and bilateral TENS decreased NRS. Clarifying the effects of ipsilateral and bilateral TENS in a placebo-controlled trial will be necessary.
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