[Purpose] To examine the influences of orienting visual attention to information terminals on collision avoidance during walking, focusing on the velocity and displacement, as well as the method of intervention by an interferer. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy males of the general public performed an avoidance task while walking and using or not using an information terminal, as an interferer intervened, adopting 6 different methods. The obtained data were analyzed using a 3-dimensional motion analysis device to calculate the velocity and distance of displacement at intervals of 1 m. [Results] The walking velocity was lower when walking while using a smartphone, involving character input, compared with normal walking. The difference was particularly marked in the anterior component. The distance of lateral displacement was also longer in the former. These tendencies did not vary among the methods of intervention. [Conclusion] The orienting of visual attention to information terminals may influence the velocity and displacement before passing an interferer. This experiment may also be useful for the screening of visual information processing and walking functions.
[Purpose] To examine the inter-rater reliability of ultrasonography measurements of soft tissue thicknesses around the shoulder joints of young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and 22 shoulder joints were analyzed. The thicknesses of the supraspinatus tendon (SST), subacromial bursa (SAB) and the biceps tendon (BT) were scanned using ultrasonography by two raters. [Results] The intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.92 for SST, 0.93 for SAB, and 0.89 for BT; no systematic errors were found for SST, SAB or BT, and the standard errors of measurement were 0.12, 0.03, and 0.12, respectively. [Conclusion] The results suggest that ultrasound measurements of soft tissue thicknesses around the shoulder joint by the method reported in this study are reliable.
[Purpose] To examine longitudinal changes after starting to use day service facilities specializing in rehabilitation through measurement of users’ fitness levels. [Subjects and Methods] In 12 users (4 and 8 requiring assistance and care, respectively), the following items were measured: the hand grip strength, functional reach (FR), duration of standing on one leg with the eyes open, Timed Up and Go (TUG) score, time needed to walk 5 m, weight-bearing index (WBI), mean rhythm error, and rate of such errors. Changes over a 6-month period were retrospectively analyzed. [Results] During the 6-month rehabilitation period, the FR, WBI, and rhythm error rate markedly improved. On comparing the initial measurement values between those requiring assistance and care, there were significant differences in the FR and TUG score. [Conclusion] Six-month rehabilitation improved the balance and lower-limb muscle strength while alleviating rhythm abnormalities, suggesting such an approach as an important factor to reduce the level of care dependency.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper-extremity function of healthy adults in wheelchair- and chair-seated postures to verify the effects of wheelchair and chair function on upper-extremity function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 35 healthy adults. They sat on a wheelchair or chair and performed the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function in the two postures. A visual analogue scale was used to assess the subjects’ difficulty in executing the test. [Results] It was found that the subjects exhibited greater upper-extremity function and found it less difficult to execute the test in the chair-seated posture than in the wheelchair-seated posture. [Conclusions] The results suggest that a chair-seated posture allows greater upper-extremity function than a wheelchair-seated posture.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of injuries that occur while playing volleyball, based on the positions of the players, to help with their prevention. [Subjects and Methods] We searched players’ electronic medical records, counted the number of diagnoses, and surveyed a total of 290 players’ (638 injuries). We classified the positions into three categories, spiker, setter, and receiver, and analyzed the injuries. [Results] The incidence rates of knee and ankle joint injuries were high for spikers and setters, and the incidence rate of low back injuries was high for spikers and receivers. The incidence rate of foot injuries was high for receivers. [Conclusion] The results suggest that to prevent injuries, we should consider the characteristics of injuries that occur while playing volleyball based on the positions of the players.
[Purpose] To clarify longitudinal changes in physical therapy students’ interest in specialized fields. [Subjects and Methods] A questionnaire survey was conducted, involving 98 students who were in their fourth year at the Department of Physical Therapy in FY2016. The questionnaire was conducted at 4 points: during the first half of the second year, first and second halves of the third year, and second half of the fourth year, to ask the students to choose 1 specialized field and 1 specialized domain which interested them the most from 7 and 23 options, respectively. [Results] The students’ interest in <Basic physical therapy sciences>, <Neurology>, and <Cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic disease> as specialized fields longitudinally increased. As for specialized domains, <Sports physical therapy> was the most interesting domain (49; 55%) during the first half of the second year. However, during the second half of the fourth year, it followed <Neuromuscular disorders> and <Orthopaedic disorders>, in this order. [Conclusion] The students’ interest in specialized domains tended to shift from <Sports physical therapy> to <Neuromuscular disorders> and <Cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic disease> during first half of the third year and the fourth year, respectively.
[Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of diseases dealt with by students during comprehensive clinical training in the final year of physical therapy school, in order to develop insight into appropriate basic physical therapy education. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 206 reports submitted by 103 students, who were in their fourth year at the Department of Physical Therapy in FY2015, were analyzed. The rate of each disease classified in the medical fee calculation system was calculated based on the name of the diagnosis and medical history. [Results] The students dealt with fracture (50; 24%) the most frequently, followed by cerebral infarction (38; 18%) and cerebral hemorrhage (38; 18%). [Conclusion] The most frequent diseases dealt with by students during comprehensive clinical training were fracture, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, it may be desirable for physical therapy schools to help students acquire basic physical therapy skills to appropriately deal with these diseases with some advice/guidance as a teaching goal.
[Purpose] To examine the relationship between the maximum gait speed and gait independence. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 262 elderly inpatients aged 65 or over were divided into 2 groups (independent/non-independent) based on the ability to walk inside the hospital independently to compare the maximum gait speed. Subsequently, they were classified into 6 sub-groups based on the gait speed to calculate the gait independence rate in each group. Furthermore, the optimal cutoff maximum gait speed to predict gait independence was determined. [Results] The maximum gait speed was significantly higher in the independent group. The gait independence rate was reduced among those showing lower maximum gait speeds . The optimal cutoff value to predict gait independence was 1.038 m/sec. Using this, it was possible to accurately predict such independence. [Conclusion] The maximum gait speed may be a predictor of gait independence. When the speed is lower than a certain level, it may be more difficult to achieve it.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the effects of the semitendinosus muscle (ST) and biceps femoris muscle (BF) on lower limb kinematics during the late swing phase of sprinting under selective muscle fatigue conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy young adults participated in this study. Sprinting trials were performed before and after selective ST and BF muscle fatigue. Torque and median power frequency were analyzed using surface electromyography of voluntary contraction trials to evaluate selective muscle fatigue. Knee/hip flexion angle and knee extension angular velocity were analyzed in sprinting trials during the late swing phase. [Results] Only the ST and BF were tested under selective muscle fatigue conditions. Lower limb kinematics showed no change before and after the sprinting trials. [Conclusion] The ST and BF had no effect on lower limb kinematics during the late swing phase of sprinting.
[Purpose] This study aimed to define the region where load is concentrated and to observe the temporal changes in the intervertebral angles of the lumbar spine of three types of sitting: lumbopelvic upright sitting, slump sitting, and thoracic upright sitting. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 healthy adult men who maintained each of the three sitting postures for 20 min with a 20% body weight load regulated by belts suspending the shoulders bilaterally. Intervertebral angle changes from L2 to S1 were measured using a three-dimensional ultrasonic motion analysis system. [Results] Significant kyphotic changes during lumbopelvic upright sitting were sequentially observed after 4, 5, 7 and 11 min from the upper segment downwards. In thoracic upright and slump sitting, no significant changes in intervertebral angles were observed. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intervertebral angles of the lumbar spine during lumbopelvic and thoracic upright sitting converge with those of slump sitting. It is speculated that the mechanical demands of supporting the spinal structure are transferred from the spinal musculature to the passive tissues, which undergo elongation stress during slump sitting. Hence, sedentary workers should change their posture frequently.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between clinical supervisors’ experience of participating in seminars on clinical training and degrees of self-confidence in student guidance and evaluation. [Subjects and Methods] A questionnaire survey was conducted, involving a total of 86 physical/occupational therapists who attended a clinical supervisor meeting to examine their experience of participating in seminars on clinical training and degrees of self-confidence in student guidance and evaluation related to the cognitive, psychomotor, and emotional areas. [Results] Therapists with experience of participating in 1) clinical clerkship seminars and 2) seminars for certified or specialized physical/occupational therapists showed significantly higher degrees of self-confidence in student guidance and evaluation related to the 1) cognitive/psychomotor and 2) emotional areas, respectively, than those without such an experience. [Conclusion] There may be an association between the experience of participating in seminars on clinical training and degree of self-confidence in student guidance and evaluation.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of movement when lifting loads at defined stance widths, and the associated mechanical stress in the lumbar region. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy, male university students lifted a 10 kg load placed on the floor using three stance widths. High-speed cameras and surface electromyography were used to measure body movements and muscle activities. [Results] Anterior tilt angle of the trunk and activity of the lumbar paraspinal muscles were significantly decreased when using a wide stance. There were no significant differences in the activities of the lower extremity muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that use of a wide stance while lifting loads decreases the anterior tilt angle of the trunk and the activity of the lumbar paraspinal muscles, which would decrease mechanical stress on the lumbar region.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the range of hip internal rotation and femoral structure. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 23 high school baseball players, and both hips were examined. The range of hip internal rotation in 90° of hip flexion (HIF) and 0° of hip extension (HIE) were evaluated. In the examination of femoral structure femoral anteversion angle was measured by MRI and the Craig test, a-angle were measured by MRI. [Results] Correlation analysis suggested relationships between HIF and HIE, and femoral anteversion. There was no association between HIF and the α-angle; however, a relationship between HIE and the α-angle was found. There was no association between femoral anteversion angle and α-angle, and asymetric hip internal rotation. [Conclusion] The results of this study show there are positive correlations between HIF and HIE, and femoral anteversion. However, asymmetry of the hip internal rotation was not due to femoral structure of high school baseball players.
[Purpose] Controversy exists over the efficacy of ventilatory muscle training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sitting position and inspiration load on thoracic configuration and changes in the volumes of the hemithoraces. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 10 sedentary healthy men with a mean age of 21.6 years, mean body mass of 58.2 kg, mean height of 169.1 cm, and a body mass index of 20.3 kg/m2. Reflective markers were placed anteriorly and posteriorly on the trunk. Using three-dimensional motion analysis, the difference in the volumes of the upper and lower hemithoraces was measured during quiet and volitional deep breathing, and breathing with loads of 30% and 50% maximum inspiratory pressure. For calculation of the thoracic volume six imaginary hexahedra were visualized for the upper and lower thorax using four reflective markers for each on the anterior and posterior aspects of the thorax. Each hexahedron was then divided into three imaginary triangular pyramids to calculate positional vectors. Anatomical boundaries were determined for the upper and lower thoracic volumes. [Results] For all of the breathing methods the left upper and right lower hemithoraces yielded a significantly larger volume change. [Conclusion] Assessment of thoracic configuration in the frontal plane could be of value in deciding the appropriate breathing technique.
[Purpose] The arteries supplying the infraspinatus muscle were observed using a gross anatomical technique to improve clinical evaluation of shoulder symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] We examined 19 upper extremities of 17 adult cadavers to observe the course and distribution of arteries supplying the infraspinatus muscle. [Results] The suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries were major arterial sources of the muscle, and ran on the deep surface of the muscle. In some cases, the suprascapular artery ran through a tunnel consisting of the superior transverse scapular ligament and scapular notch, before reaching the muscle. The area of distribution of the two arteries varied among cases. [Conclusion] This study revealed that the arteries supplying the infraspinatus muscle are liable to compression because of their course deep to the muscle and through a tunnel. Moreover, variation in arterial distribution among individuals may affect various clinical signs.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the definition of social participation and its evaluation indices in the context of rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] A qualitative systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of studies that reported the definition of and evaluated social participation. The search terms chosen were “rehabilitation”, “social participation,” and related words. To interpret and characterize the content of social participation in each study, similar definitions and evaluation indices were integrated using a text analysis. [Results] In previous studies, “activities in terms of work, household, and leisure” and “have a role at work or in the family” have been defined as social participation. The evaluation indices were different depending on the definitions of social participation. [Conclusion] The present study showed that the definitions of social participation vary, and that it is necessary to choose evaluation indices according to these definitions.
[Purpose] To examine the effects of ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion on hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system activity as a basis for the effective management of orthostatic hypotension. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy males (age: 28.8 ± 5.3) performed a motor task based on the following protocol: maintaining a resting sitting position for 5 minutes, executing ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion for 1 minute, and maintaining a resting sitting position again for 5 minutes, to evaluate hemodynamics and responses of the autonomic nervous system. [Results] Compared with resting values, the heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output during ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion were significantly higher. Such an effect was maintained until 1 minute after the motor task. In contrast, there were no marked changes in responses of the autonomic nervous system, represented by the LF/HF ratio and HF component. [Conclusion] The effect of ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion was immediate, and it lasted for approximately 1 minute, suggesting that these movements reduce hypotension immediately after standing.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of undergraduate junior students’ evaluations of patients in clinical practice by investigating what kind of physical examination the students carried out. [Subjects and Methods] The final reports of clinical practice performed by 100 undergraduate junior physical therapy students in 2014 were analyzed. The physical examinations the students performed were categorized. Then, the physical examinations were compared depending on the type of patient (neurological or musculoskeletal) and the stage (acute, subacute and chronic). [Results] The average number of physical examinations performed was 12, and the mode was 11 items per case report. The appearance rate of motion analysis, ROM-T, and MMT was 97%, 95%, and 92%, respectively, and those of other items were less than 70%. Many physical therapy examinations had a significant association with the type of disease and phase from onset. [Conclusion] In clinical practice evaluating junior students, the performance of motion analysis, ROM-T, and MMT is essential. Since the type of patient and stage were associated with the physical examinations that the students carried out, it is suggested that these results would be useful for preparatory learning before clinical practice.
[Purpose] We studied the effects of active exercise on preventing joint contractures secondary to joint immobilization in a functional position. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve female Wistar rats were used. The unilateral ankle joint of each animal was immobilized in a functional position by a cast for a duration of seven days. In the active exercise group, the casts were removed during treadmill running (20 min) once a day. In the control group, the casts were changed once a day. On the first and last days, the ranges of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints were measured. [Results] The ROMs were 117.3 ± 6.1° in the immobilized group and 119.7 ± 5.3° in the active exercise group on the first day with no significant difference between the two groups. The ROMs were 84.0 ± 4.6° in the immobilized group and 93.3 ± 8.0° in the active exercise group on the last day. ROM had decreased not only in the immobilized group but also in the active exercise group. The ROM of the active exercise group had significantly increased on the last day. [Conclusion] The fixation conditions described above could not prevent joint contracture.
[Purpose] To clarify the longitudinal influence by gender on satisfaction with learning and school life of physical therapy students for three years from sophomore to senior undergraduate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 56 male and 42 female physical therapy students who graduated from the International University of Health and Welfare in March 2017 and agreed to cooperate with this survey. Satisfaction levels were longitudinally assessed at the end of the sophomore, junior and senior year using a visual analog scale. [Results] The satisfaction with learning significantly increased before graduation in both genders. The satisfaction with school life had high scores for three years, continuously, so no significant change was observed. Before graduation, females showed a higher relationship between learning and school life satisfactions. [Conclusion] For the three years before graduation, satisfaction with learning increased and high satisfaction with school life was maintained. Satisfaction with learning and school life showed different characteristics.
[Purpose] To clarify the current status of clinical clerkships (CCS) from the standpoint of clinical supervisors, and obtain basic data for appropriate CCS-based clinical education. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted, involving 60 physical therapists with 3-year or longer clinical experience. [Results] Concerning the training style, a large number of the respondents aimed to promote students’ growth through participation in clinical practice. On the other hand, it was revealed that students’ attitudes toward training were passive, and their attention tended to be directed to checklists to be filled in by them. As for their levels of understanding, improving the method of guidance for them to develop an overall understanding of physical therapy was shown to be a challenge. [Conclusion] The results clarified the current status of CCS. As a future perspective, it may be necessary to improve students’ attitudes toward CCS-based training, as well as the method of guidance for them, through collaboration with clinical supervisors to.
[Purpose] To examine the effect and completion rate of Elongation training (ELT) among day rehabilitation service users. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 25 day rehabilitation service users (10 males and 15 females, mean age 83.5 ± 6.5 years) who were divided into an ELT group and a control group. The ELT group performed walking exercises and other exercises with an Elongation Band; and the control group performed exercises, such as range of motion exercises, muscle strengthening exercises, and gait training without an Elongation Band. [Results] The completion rate of the ELT group was 93%. No interactions were found between intervention type (ELT versus control) and intervention period for any outcome measure. The ELT intervention mainly affected quadriceps femoris strength, CS-30, passive hip extension range of motion, sit and reach, TUG and 2ST. [Conclusion] Elongation training demonstrated effects similar to those of physical therapy, and the ELT completion rate was high. Thus, ELT may be useful for improving the outcomes of nursing care.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the Silver Rehab Exercise instructor® training course on the motor function, physical activity, and health and psychological conditions of the trainees. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were elderly people who participated in the Silver Rehab Exercise instructor® training course. The changes from baseline to 4 weeks of motor function, physical activity, health and psychological conditions, and dementia were assessed. [Results] Significant improvements were found after the intervention in the grip strength of females, the K-I scale of the feeling of life worth living, and “anger and hostility” of the Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the Silver Rehab Exercise instructor® training course is effective at improving the physical and psychological conditions of elderly people.
[Purpose] Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is considered to occur due to an inconsistency between the visual and somatic senses (multiple senses). The lower extremity is a part of the body, which is difficult to visually control. This paper reports a case of lower-extremity CRPS, in which symptom improvement by multisensory integration was insufficient, but it was promoted by integrating the somatic sense (unisensory approach). [Subjects and Methods] A patient with bilateral lower-extremity CRPS performed multi- and unisensory integration tasks for 2 months, respectively. During each period, the correct answer rate and changes in the symptoms were recorded. [Results] Symptom improvement was insufficient despite a correct answer rate of 100% when performing the multisensory integration task. In contrast, the subsequent unisensory approach promoted the improvement. [Conclusion] Intervention based on unisensory integration may be effective for lower-extremity CRPS.
[Introduction] A physical therapist joined the Kyoto Prefectural Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) as a logistics coordinator. We report on the support activities that physical therapists are potentially required to perform within DMAT. [Progress] In 2015, a physical therapist participated in the Kyoto Prefectural DMAT training workshop and registered for membership. During the same year, a large-scale disaster response training exercise was held at our hospital. In the workshop and training, there were many circumstances in which a logistics coordinator communicated victim information to DMAT/disaster response headquarters/fire fighters in order to request treatment and a medical ambulance. Physical therapists with medical knowledge assuming the role of logistics coordinators enabled better cooperation among various professionals. [Discussion] Physical therapists have the opportunity to be involved in the treatment of patients with serious conditions and have the ability to respond appropriately and quickly during disasters; thus, they are deemed promising members of DMAT.