[Purpose] To evaluate the effect of an exercise intervention program for the community-dwelling elderly with knee pain. [Subjects] Twenty-eight elderly persons voluntarily participated in the intervention program. The control group comprised 70 subjects matched on the basis of sex, age, and degree of knee pain. [Methods] The subjects participated in the class-based program once a week for 4 weeks. The exercise program consisted of 4 lower leg exercises which were performed daily at home, as well as in the class. The effect of the intervention was assessed using the WOMAC index and repeated measures analysis of variance with time and group as factors. [Results] The within-group comparison showed a significant improvement only in the intervention group, but no significant interaction effects were observed. [Conclusion] The results suggest this program improved the knee pain of the elderly, but compared to the control group, the effect was not clear.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to simultaneously measure the passive Straight Leg Raising (SLR) angle and the load on the posterior superior iliac spines (pelvic load), and analyze their relationship. [Subjects] Twenty healthy students volunteered for this study (age 18-24 years, 10 males and 10 females). [Methods] All measurements were performed on a measuring plate incorporating a load measuring device attached to a strain sensor. The SLR angle and the pelvic load were measured simultaneously. The pelvic load was measured for 3 seconds at each angle of passive SLR, raised in increments of 5 degrees. The ratio of pelvic load divided by body weight (pelvic load ratio) was calculated. [Results] The SLR angle positively correlated with the pelvic load ratio in all subjects. A positive correlation was found between the maximum SLR angle and the maximum pelvic load ratio (r=0.68). [Conclusion] The SLR angle positively correlated with pelvic load in all subjects. This result suggests that pelvic load during SLR reflects pelvic retroversion to some extent.
[Purpose] On the initiation of gait, backward movement of the center of foot pressure (COP) is caused by reduced activity of the triceps surae muscle. The purpose of this study was to consider the dynamics of the triceps surae muscle at gait initiation. [Subjects] Twenty-two healthy adults without orthopedic disease in the lower limbs. [Methods] A force plate measuring COP distribution, a B-mode ultrasound imaging system and a video camera were synchronized, and the dynamics of the triceps surae muscles at gait initiation were investigated as the change in the length of muscle fiber bundles between quiet-standing and gait initiation. [Results] It was found that the triceps surae muscle stretched by about 10 mm. [Conclusion] The results suggest the triceps surae muscle stretches when COP moves backward, and that it is necessary to include this dynamic when performing therapy for gait initiation.
[Purpose] To investigate the factors influencing relations with the community and the willingness of physical therapists engaged in the integrated community care system and care prevention. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 846 physical therapists working at 504 medical facilities or care service centers in the north Kanto area. Questionnaires were distributed via mail. [Results] A total of 366 (42.6%) valid responses were received. The analysis revealed that willingness was influenced by 4 categories: less than 5 years of experience, and involvement in the organization of persons with disabilities, preventive care support, and clubs for aged people. [Conclusion] The results showed education is needed about the necessity of participating in care meetings and relations with the community from an early stage after graduation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taurine ingestion before exercise on muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Ten male soccer players participated in this study. [Methods] This study had a double-blind crossover test design. The subjects drank taurine water or placebo water before exercise. Two types of exercise were performed: bicycle ergometer and isokinetic knee extension exercise. Muscle fatigue was evaluated using the mean power frequency (MPF) of the rectus femoris electromyogram, peak torque, and blood components. [Results] The taurine blood level of the subjects who imbibed taurine water was significantly higher than that of the subjects who drank placebo water. Furthermore, their myoglobin blood level was lower and their MPF showed a tendency to decline less than that of the placebo group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the taurine blood level is increased by taurine intake, and that muscle fatigue due to exercise was inhibited by taurine ingestion.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to compare self-education ability between academic grades in physical therapy education. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 first-grade and 76 fourth-grade students of a physical therapy department. [Methods] A collective survey was administered using a measure of self-learning ability. Self-learning ability comprises four factors (I, growth and development; II, self-objectification and self-control; III academic skills and foundation; IV, confidence, pride, and stability) which were constructed from the answers to 10 question items. [Results] In the comparison of the results, the first-grade students showed significantly higher scores for the total score, and the scores for factors I (growth and development) and II (self-objectification and self-control). [Conclusion] The results showed the first-grade students had high goal-seeking aims and willingness to learn.
[Purpose] To investigate the association between insulin resistance and the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Untreated patients with type 2 diabetes (21 men and 7 women, age 57.1 ± 10.6 years) were recruited for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed the 6-min walking test. %6MWD was calculated as the measured 6MWD divided by the predicted 6MWD. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured as insulin resistance. [Results] Measured 6MWD was significantly lower than predicted 6MWD. Simple linear regression analysis indicated that %6MWD significantly correlated with age, HOMA-IR and pulse wave velocity. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that age and HOMA-IR were independent determinants of %6MWD. [Conclusion] 6MWD, a measure of exercise tolerance, that is easily measured in clinical settings, correlates well with the insulin resistance of patients with type 2 diabetes.
[Purpose] To clarify with a psychological test what kinds of emotional changes students of a physical therapy vocational school experience before scheduled exams. [Subjects] Among first- to third-year students attending a physical therapy vocational school, 81, 86, and 70 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-year students were tested during normal term time, and 80, 85, and 70 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-year students were tested before scheduled exams. [Methods] The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was conducted on both occasions. [Results] Significant differences in Tension-Anxiety and Vigor of 1st-year, Tension-Anxiety, Confusion, and Vigor of 2nd-year, and Tension-Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, Confusion, and Vigor of 3rd-year students were found. [Conclusion] Scheduled exams are a stressful event, and differences were found in the psychological profiles of stresses between the academic years.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate what influence motor skill has on the degree of vividness of motor imagery. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 healthy students. [Methods] The subjects were divided into those with experience of sports in unstable and unpredictable environments, the “open skill” subjects, and those with experience of sports in stable and predictable environments, the “closed skill” subjects. The subjects were evaluated using the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised Japanese Version (JMIQ-R), and the vividness of their motor imagery was investigated and compared. [Results] No significant difference was found in the motor imagery vividness of the open skill and closed skill subjects. [Conclusion] The results suggest that differences in motor skill experience do not affect the vividness of motor imagery, suggesting the possibility that there is no difference in the mental practice effect between open skill and closed skill subjects.
[Purpose] This study investigated the current degree of physical therapists’ satisfaction with the execution of their professional duties (professional satisfaction) and the factors associated with it. [Subjects] Three hundred seventy-nine physical therapists. [Methods] Professional satisfaction was surveyed by questionnaire, and its associations with willingness to work, plans to leave or find another position, and work environment factors were investigated. [Results] Significant correlations between professional satisfaction and willingness to work and plans to change job or leave were found. Furthermore, the result of multiple regression analysis of the relationships of professional satisfaction with work environment factors identified age, interpersonal relationship stress, support from superiors, degree of professional discretion, suitability to the profession, and the value of the work as relevant factors. [Conclusion] There is a possibility that giving physical therapists’ job satisfaction would increase their willingness to work, and reduce resignations or job change plans. In addition, interpersonal relationship stress, support from superiors, degree of professional discretion, suitability to the profession, and the value of the work were also relevant factors.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between crural tissue hardness and the frequency of falls in community-dwelling elderly outpatients who visited hospital following lower limb surgery. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 22 elderly persons. [Methods] Posterior crural tissue hardness was measured using a tissue hardness meter. The results of the operated and the non-operated sides were compared. Subjects’ history of falls, walking speed, use of gait-assistive devices, structural deformities of the back, and drug use were also investigated using a fall risk index. [Results] The comparison of the operated and non-operated sides indicated significant differences in crural tissue hardness when subjects’ ankles were in maximal dorsiflexion. No significant differences were observed when their ankles were in plantarflexion of 0°. Furthermore, according to the fall risk index, the subjects’ propensity for falls increased with age. [Conclusion] The differences in muscle function between the operated and non-operated sides when the ankles are in dorsiflexion may lead to falls in the daily lives of community-dwelling elderly individuals. This suggests that the elderly should perform functional compensatory movements.
[Purpose] To understand the anxieties of families caring for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients in China, and to clarify the relationships between their anxieties and patients’ activities of daily living (ADL). [Subjects] The families of 45 CVD patients who were in-patients in a rehabilitation center in China. [Methods] A paper-based survey was conducted. The items investigated were: the basic family structure, the conditions of care provision after hospital discharge, the patients’ background details, and ADL abilities. The relationships of ADL with care-giving anxieties was analyzed using the χ2 test. [Results] Toilet and bathroom transfer assistance were found to have significant relationships with the presence or absence of family care-givers’ anxieties. [Conclusion] The results suggest that assistance with transfer activities are connected with family care-givers’ anxieties.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the weight-bearing index (WBI) of lower limb muscle strength and motor function. [Subjects] The subjects were 50 community-dwelling elderly people. [Methods] The muscle strengths of knee extensors, hip abductors, and hip extensors were measured. The motor functions evaluated included walking, climbing stairs, and activities of daily living (ADL). Correlation between the muscle strengths and motor functions were investigated. [Results] The cutoff values (kgf/kg) required to be able to walk independently were 0.27 for knee extensors and 0.22 for hip abductors; for climbing stairs, the cutoff value was 0.27 for knee extensors, and the values for ADL were 0.30 for knee extensors and 0.14 for hip extensors. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and hip abductor strengths were closely related to walking ability. Knee extensor strength was also closely related to climbing stairs, and knee extensor and hip extensor strength were closely related to ADL.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a psychological health condition and college life anxiety among male first-year students of physical therapy. [Subjects] Forty-four first-year students with an average age of 19.0 years. [Methods] The psychological health condition was evaluated using the Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire (CMI) and campus life anxiety was assessed using the College Life Anxiety Scale (CLAS). [Results] Twenty-five percent of students were diagnosed as having neuroses or potential neuroses, and these students had a significantly higher rate of anxiety about relationships with friends and teachers, and higher anxiety in exams than normal students. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the students with neuroses or potential neuroses tended to have feelings of anxiety about their own position in group life. Therefore, they should be encouraged to attend group activities and to accustom themselves to relationships with others as early as possible after admission.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to clarify the differences between single-leg standing and single-leg kneeling kinematics. [Subjects] Thirteen young adults with no history of hip, knee, or ankle joint impairment were examined. [Methods] A three-dimensional motion analysis system and a floor reaction force plate with a sampling frequency of 150 Hz were used for measurements. The trunk inclination angle, pelvic tilt angle, thigh tilt angle, and lower leg rotation angles were calculated from the coordinate data. From the maximum and minimum angles of each body segment, the angular range during the time of control was calculated. [Results] A significantly greater value was obtained for the single-leg kneeling position in all segment angular ranges. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that single-leg standing and single-leg kneeling have different kinematic characteristics of static balance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the trunk impairment scale (TIS), an evaluation of trunk function, and gait. [Subjects] The participants were fourteen hemiplegic men. [Methods] Trunk movement of the gait was measured using a 3D-motion analysis system and the trunk function was evaluated by TIS. [Results] A significant relationship was found between the angle of the trunk in the terminal stance of gait and TIS. In particular, there was a correlation between the rotation angle of the middle of the trunk and the dynamic and coordination items of TIS. [Conclusion] These results suggest that TIS is an adequate evaluation tool of trunk movement, especially rotation of the trunk, in the terminal stance phase of hemiplegic patients’ gait.
[Purpose] Falls often occur in rehabilitation wards. The aim of this study was to clarify the balance ability of patients at different times of day. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 79 patients with orthopedic conditions who were admitted to a convalescence rehabilitation ward. Balance ability was evaluated before breakfast, before lunch, and after dinner using the standing test for imbalance and disequilibrium. Based on the balance before lunch results, the subjects were divided into two groups, and their age, cognitive function, muscle strength, activities of daily living, and drug taking were compared. [Results] The patients with imbalance before lunch, showed significantly reduced balance ability before breakfast and after dinner. Patients with imbalance were older and had lower cognitive function and muscle strength than those without imbalance. The group with good pre-lunch balance showed reductions in balance ability before breakfast and after dinner. On the other hand, the group with poor pre-lunch balance ability had low balance ability throughout the day. [Conclusion] The balance ability of patients without imbalance during the day is lower in the morning and at night. There is a need for fall prevention measures for these patients.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effect of wearing a Trunk Solution (TS) and a diet belt on the fat metabolic rate, represented by oxygen uptake (V̇O2), and the respiratory quotient measured using an expiration gas analyzer during treadmill walking. [Subjects] The study subjects were 9 healthy men and 5 healthy women with no reported orthopedic diseases of the spine. All subjects understood the purpose of this study and provided their informed consent prior to the experiment. [Methods] Measurements were performed while the subjects walked on a treadmill at their optimal speed under three conditions: without any device, and wearing a TS, or a diet belt. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the differences among the three experimental conditions, and the Bonferroni post hoc test was conducted. [Results] The respiratory quotient significantly increased when the diet belt was worn compared to the other two conditions. V̇O2 significantly increased when the TS belt was worn compared to no device. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the TS belt maybe the most effective for energy metabolism, because it increased V̇O2 and fat combustion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) of perioperative lung cancer patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 57 patients who underwent lung cancer resection. [Methods] 6MWD, as a measure of exercise tolerance, pulmonary function, and isometric knee extension force (IKEF), as a measure of muscle strength, were evaluated before and after surgery. The 6MWD was used as the dependent variable in multiple regression analysis. [Results] The 6MWD was significantly reduced after surgery. Multiple regression analysis of preoperative 6MWD identified max PR (pulse rate), resting PR, age, %VC, resting dyspnea, and IKEF as significantly independent variables, while analysis of postoperative 6MWD identified age, SBP after walking, %VC, max PR, and resting dyspnea as significantly independent variables. [Conclusion] 6MWD results before surgery were affected by cardiac reserve capacity, age and %VC, while those following surgery were influenced by cardiac output, age and %VC.
[Purpose] The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ) is used for the objective assessment of hip diseases. However, there are few reports concerning the physical function factors influencing the JHEQ total score. Accordingly, this study investigated physical functions affecting the JHEQ score at 6 months after total hip arthroplasty (THA). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 26 first-time THA patients. Before and at 6 months post-THA, the JHEQ score and knee extension strength (KES), hip abduction strength, range of motion (ROM), and gait speed, contributors to physical function, were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. [Results] The factors affecting the JHEQ total score at 6 months post-THA were: 6 months post-THA KES, the rate of change of KES, gait speed, and hip abduction ROM. [Conclusion] For improving patients’ quality of life, strengthening of KES, and rehabilitation focusing on raising gait speed are important.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to elucidate the usefulness of the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30) for evaluating the exercise capacity of patients with mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia (IP). [Subjects and Method] Nineteen consecutive patients who performed the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the CS-30 as evaluations in clinical practice were enrolled. The results of the 6MWT and CS-30 were compared. [Results] The number of chair stands significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance. It also showed significant correlations with the maximum heart rate, maximum respiratory rate, and maximum modified Borg dyspnea score, and these items’ values were significantly lower in the CS-30. A significant correlation with minimum SpO2 was also found, and the decrease in SpO2 was significantly smaller in the CS-30. [Conclusion] The results suggest that CS-30 correlates well with 6MWT and can be performed with lower risk of desaturation in patients with mild to moderate IP.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the changes in venous blood flow in the lower limb of hemiplegic stroke patients due to the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) or elastic stockings. [Subjects] The study enrolled 11 chronic hemiplegia patients without deep venous thrombosis whose paralysis was moderate to severe. [Methods] IPC was used for all 11 subjects, and elastic stockings were used by six subjects. To evaluate venous return, maximum venous blood flow velocity on the paretic side (cm/sec), mean venous blood flow velocity (cm/sec), blood flow volume (ml/min), and concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and total hemoglobin at the calf on the paretic side were measured at rest before IPC and elastic stocking use. [Results] Only the mean blood flow was significantly lowered by IPC. [Conclusion] The results suggest the limitations of the use of mechanical prophylaxis for hemiplegic patients after stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the regression equation for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of knee extension on the non-paretic side in hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The knee extension strengths on the non-paretic side of 37 patients with hemiplegia after stroke were measured using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). The associations between 1RM and maximal muscle strength, age, gender, body mass index, time since the onset of stroke, the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the lower extremities, functional independence measure of gait function, and associative reaction in hemiplegia were assessed using multivariate analysis. [Results] The analysis provided the following regression equations: 1RM=0.157 × knee extension strength + 2.183 (R2=0.549), and 1RM=0.385 × peak torque of knee extension + 2.795 (R2=0.583). [Conclusion] The 1RM of knee extension on the non-paretic side of hemiplegic stroke patients can be estimated from the knee extension strength measured by a HHD.
[Purpose] The usefulness of cycle ergometer exercise with electrical stimulation for denervated muscles was investigated. [Subject] A 28-year-old man exhibiting drop foot after decompression surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. [Methods] In addition to conventional physical therapy, the patient performed cycle ergometer exercise with electrical stimulation 4 or 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The electrical stimulation was adjusted to apply stimulus to the perineal nerve in the flexion phases of the lower limbs on the cycle ergometer. [Results] After the intervention, increases in muscle strengths of the anterior tibial and peroneal muscles, and improvement of gait function were observed. [Conclusion] There is a possibility that conducting electrical stimulation is effective for denervated muscles.