The so-called “Josiah's Reform” has been perceived as only one anchor point for the study of the Old Testament. Especially in the current situation, the importance is intensified, because other traditional theoretical presuppositions are seriously challenged. Yet, even on Josiah's reform, researchers have not reached a consensus. Lately, Esarhaddon's Oath Documents appeared from Tell Tayinat, and shed light on the reorganizing of research history on Josiah's reform. The find may show that Josiah's reform itself is inspired by the documents that were made in 672 BCE. King Mannaseh of Judah may have brought back the tablet to Jerusalem, where palace officials and Jerusalem priests could have read it.
Ich will hier meine Aufmerksamkeit auf Heinrich Barth, den „vergessenen Bruder“ von Karl Barth, richten. Zuerst wird Heinrich Barths „Philosophie der Existenz“ aufgrund seiner Schriften »Philosophie der Existenz« und »Erkenntnis der Existenz« sowie seiner Vorlesung »Grundriß einer Philosophie der Existenz« untersucht. Dann wird das Verhältnis von Philosophie und Glauben bei Heinrich Barth anhand seiner Beirtäge »Echter und falscher Existentialismus« und »Grundzüge einer Philosophie der Existenz in ihrer Beziehung zur Glaubenswahrheit« klar gemacht. Während der Glaube nach Heinrich Barth „in der Wahrheit ist“, denkt die Philosophie über diese „nach“. Das biblische Wort hat die unmittelbare Aktualität, aber die philosophischen Begriffe können über sie nur nachdenken. „[D]ie Erscheinung Gottes in Christo meint die Philosophie nicht entdeckt zu haben.“ „[I]n ihrer unmittelbar ansprechenden Aktualität und in der durchgreifenden Schärfe der anfgeworfenen Fragen“ hat der Glaube den Vorrang vor der Philosophie. Schließlich soll der Unterschied zwischen Heinrich Barth und Karl Jaspers herausgearbeitet werden.
Hōnen (1133-1212), founder of the Jōdo-shū school of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism, did not initially disclose to the general public his major work Senchaku Hongan Nembutsushū (Passages on the Selection of the Nembutsu in the Original Vow), abbreviated to Senchakushū. He was afraid that most people would not understand the work which was based on his deeply-personal religious experiences through nembutsu chanting.
Instead, Hōnen selected only six of his senior disciples and let them copy the whole work. It seems that he trusted them as capable of comprehending his true intention.
Shinran (1173-1263) was one of those six chosen disciples. Hōnen's rare permission indicates that he approved Shiran's faith and commitment in his nembutsu practices. This thesis investigates the elements of Shinran's thought which convinced Hōnen to give permission to him.
The purpose of this study is to explore the process of how narratives and practices of shamans are constructed and gain plausibility in a local community. First, we introduce cases of three shamans called Kami-sama in the Tsugaru region, especially focusing on their narratives related to local shrines and temples. After examining the narratives of shamans, it is found that local shrines and temples help to develop Kami-sama's imagination of supernatural, to sustain its legitimacy and represent a place to embody such imagination. Second, we turn to a consideration of religious practices conducted and created by Kami-sama. It is argued that they are improvised compositions of not organized but rather fragmented local religious knowledge, highly restricted by local people's sense of daily life. Kami-sama's practices become acceptable only when they are based on religious knowledge and ideas already recognized by local people. However they might be innovative in the unique combination of such knowledge. Finally, we define Kami-sama, as an expert who extemporarily assembles local religious knowledges to suit the needs of clients.
This paper examines Zaydī elements in the Tafsīr of Furāt b. Ibrāhīm al-Kūfī, who was an Imāmī traditionalist in the 9th and 10th century. In Tafsīr Furāt, there are several ḥadīths of non-Imāmī Shī‘ī sects. Among those, the number of ḥadīths transmitted from Zaydī Imāms is larger than that of other sects. Some of the contents of the ḥadīths from Zayd b. ‘Alī are not compatible with Imāmī doctrines. In this paper, we analyze the possibility that Furāt had not been recognized as an Imāmī scholar for a long time after his death. We also demonstrate that one of the main reasons for the low evaluation of Furāt among the Imāmīya was his sympathy for the Zaydīya. Furāt's evaluation underwent a transition over the ages although al-Majlisī's re-evaluation of Furāt was accepted by the Imāmīya from the 17th century onward. By examining the Zaydī elements, which are the most outstanding characteristics in his tafsīr, we also reveal that in early Imāmī literatures there are several transmissions that seem to be from non-Imāmī Shī‘ī sects.