In recent years, whistleblowing has uncovered several cases of wrongdoing committed by organizations and individuals in Japan. However, a survey by Japan’s Consumer Affairs Agency (2016) showed that the prospect of retaliation inhibits people from whistleblowing. Although the Japanese government is considering establishing legal penalties for people who retaliate against whistleblowers research has yet to determine whether such penalties encourage whistleblowing in actuality. According to the social impact theory, diffusion of responsibility becomes more likely as more people recognize wrongdoing or when the wrongdoing is recognized by a strong authority figure. Previous studies have shown that when diffusion of responsibility occurs, individuals’ intention to report wrongdoing is suppressed. However, previous research has not examined whether the presence of a strong authority figure inhibits whistleblowing intention. Using a hypothetical situation method, the present study examined whether the intention to report wrongdoing is influenced by the number of people who recognize the wrongdoing, the authority of those who recognize the wrongdoing, and the existence of legal penalties for retaliation against whistleblowers. Three hypotheses were formulated: (1) participants are more likely to report wrongdoing when there are legal penalties for retaliating against whistleblowers compared to when no such penalties exist; (2) participants are less likely to report wrongdoing when a strong authority figure (e.g., the manager from a head office) recognizes the wrongdoing, as opposed to someone with weak authority (e.g., a manager without decision-making power); (3) the intention of reporting whistleblowing does not depend on the number of people aware of the wrongdoing. A total of 226 university students participated in the study. 2 (the presence of legal penalties for retaliation against whistleblowers) × 2 (number of people who recognize wrongdoing) × 2 (authority of a boss who recognizes wrongdoing) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted. The results showed that hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported, whereas hypothesis 3 was not. These findings suggest that whistleblowing will be encouraged when legal penalties exist against retaliation and when companies train managers to be aware of the influence of authority.
The aim of this study was to find what kind of childcare content area “physical and mental health” childcare workers emphasized. We asked eighteen childcare workers to answer three types of questions by free description. The first question was what kind of area “physical and mental health” childcare workers always feel important. As a second question, we asked them to write the content area “physical and mental health” practiced by childcare workers for all pre-school children. As a final question, we asked them to write the content area practiced by childcare workers for pre-school children with special-needs. As for the results, we obtained three main findings. First, it was important for childcare workers in this study to regulate children’s life and physical activities, whereas it was unimportant to guide about food education, enjoying a sense of fulfillment for physical activities, and extracting independent activity related to physical and mental health. Finally, for pre-school children with special-needs, it seems that they focused on physiological and psychological fullness. We discussed from the viewpoint of improvement in current practice. For a future direction, it is necessary to repeatedly examine what childcare workers emphasize on childcare content area “physical and mental health” in another nursery pre-school.
In Japan, the rate of which men take “childcare leave” is 8 %, which is remarkably low compared with the one by women (87 %). When “paid vacation”, “maternity leave”, etc. are included, the rate of its men’s taking rises to 37 %. This indicates that it is necessary to examine the male taking another peripheral systems in addition to “childcare leave”, in order to understand the actual situations and promotional/inhibitory factors of male general childcare participation. In this study, we use the concept, “Kosodate childcare leave”, which integrates childcare leave, paid vacation, maternity leave and so on. Then as determinants of these leaves taking by men, we examined the effects of workplace, home and individual factors, using the data of the national social survey. The logistic regression analysis revealed that taking “Kosodate childcare leave” was related with not only environments at work but also at home, as well as their characters. Especially the work environments and personal motivation have the strong effects on taking “Kosodate childcare leave” by men. Based on these results, we discussed the issues of male childcare participation in Japan.
To examine the relationship between dysuria and cognitive function, we compared cognitive function test (D-CAT, letter fluency test, semantic fluency test, and logical memory test) performances, body fat percentage, BMI between the MD group (N = 112, 40-89 years old) and the Intact group (N = 102, 40-87 years old). Participants who did not reach UI but experienced dysuria assessed by Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) were classified to the MD. As a result, D-CAT showed a significant group difference. This finding suggests a decline in the frontal lobe function for the MD group and it reconfirms the results of our previous study on UI (Hatta et al., 2011), which slows the decline of higher brain function. We discussed the importance of the training of the frontal cortex function from early stage of MD symptoms such as pollakiuria.
Age-related changes in left-right discrimination, which mainly reflect visuospatial processing, were investigated. We developed a modified version of the Money Road-Map Test (MRMT: Money et al., 1965), which assesses the accuracy of left-right orientation, with and without egocentric mental rotation in space. The MRMT is used for the health screening of community residents. Healthy middle-aged (N = 236, 55-64 years of age), young-old (N = 129, 65-74 years of age) and old-old (N = 252, 75-92 years of age) participants responded to a modified version of the MRMT comprising of 12 turns, each of which could be assigned to one of the three categories of mental rotation proposed by Vingerhoets et al. (1996): no mental rotation (NR, n = 2), half-mental rotation (HR, n = 5) and full-mental rotation (FR, n = 5). Each participant walked on a street from its entrance to the exit using a paper road map. The participants were required to respond to commands for turning left or right at the end of the street verbally. An age group (Middle/Young-Old/Old-Old) × Sex (Female/Male) x Rotation type (NR/HR/FR) ANOVA was conducted for the correct number of turns. Results indicated the main effects of age-related decline, male advantage, and the decline in egocentric mental rotations, although the three-way interaction was not significant. However, the interaction between Sex and Rotation type was significant, indicating that the decline of egocentric mental rotation was more pronounced in women than men. These results suggest that left-right discrimination decreases as a result of the egocentric mental rotation burden, which reflects visuospatial processing. However, the deterioration of left-right discrimination as a function of egocentric mental rotation did not change with age. The study suggests that the deterioration of left-right discrimination of egocentric mental rotation, which reflects visuospatial processing, is more pronounced in women than men.
Within the human society, there prevail shared standards that we demand of each other and that are different from rules/regulations wherein violation of any of the given rules/regulations leads to punishment; these standards are created by the members of the society, as they are either beneficial or required for the given society. Moreover, shared standards are applied as social standards only through the will of the people. Lining up for boarding a train on a railway platform can also be considered as a kind of social standard wherein each passenger places a value on “waiting in a queue to board a train.” This study examined the relationship between the degree of congestion (crowding) in a given location as a factor in the formation of such social standards. It surveyed the ratio of people lining up for trains on railway platforms on several days across different time intervals at various stations in Tokyo. The results revealed that there are different ratios for specific conditions and standards, such as the degree of congestion (crowding) in the given location, that are associated with the willingness of the passengers to line up in an attempt to board the train that may be related to the formation of standards in the society.
The purpose of this study is to clarify what kind of relationships can be found in past research of principal’s leadership. Recently, principals are given great tasks and responsibilities. In this paper, based on previous research, we focused on the principal’s leadership which is currently attracting attention, and examined under what background they are proposed. As a result, the following three points were developed: The first point is that the leadership characteristic of the principal is important over time, which leads to the leadership characteristics of principals who are currently attracting attention; The second point is that in the 1990s, the motivation and empowerment of teachers, with transformative leadership led by the principal, was decentralized leadership and teachers who participated in management since the 2000s, where leaders are dispersed, become autonomous; The third point is that beginning in the 2010s, not only principals and teachers, but also children and students have become more and more important in creating a learning-related community and an innovative learning environment.
In this study, the fuzzy inference technique was applied for preprocessing the clinical drawings of schizophrenic patients. The interpretation procedure for the clinical drawings was divided into two phases, namely preprocessing and interpretation phases. In the preprocessing phase, two analyses were conducted by employing the fuzzy inference technique and three analyses were conducted by applying Fourier transform, wavelet transform, and singular value decomposition on three images of the tree test. In the interpretation phase, the drawings and output images were psychologically interpreted. The contrast of each image was also examined for determining the feature associated with the corresponding output image of the fuzzy inference technique. Based on the compared interpretations and contrasts, it can be concluded that image analysis incorporating the fuzzy inference technique is superior as a preprocessing method employed before interpreting whole image. Further research is required for examining the relation between the empirical findings regarding schizophrenic patients and the parameter of the fuzzy inference technique.
Modern society faces many challenges. Globalization and innovation accelerated economic growth, but at the same time, caused serious environmental and social problems such as global warming, resource depletion, and widening inequalities. And now we are facing the new problem of a global pandemic infection. In response, many companies are strengthening corporate governance, fulfilling corporate social responsibility (CSR) and creating shared value (CSV). Efforts aimed at realizing a sustainable society, that modern society is pursuing, were actually promoted by many entrepreneurs of Japanese companies in the Meiji era. In this article, using a business history approach, we reviewed Tsurukichi Hatano, the founder of Gunze Limited. Hatano devoted himself to achieving the well-being of his employees and people in the community throughout his life. Hatano set a spirit of altruism as a corporate mission for his company, and solved various trade-offs of conflicting management issues such as quality improvement of silk products, customer satisfaction, employee motivation, integration with local communities, and profit earning. Thus, he successfully laid the foundation for a local small enterprise to grow into one of today's leading apparel manufacturers. We learn many lessons from Hatano's philosophy and behavior, which always cherished people even in difficult situations.
The purpose of this study was to explore psychological determinants influencing within-group and between-group differences in sustainable participation in regional management organization. For the purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted targeting 298 members of regional management organizations in Seiyo city, Ehime Prefecture. Multilevel analysis was applied to collected data from the survey considering its multilevel structure. The result showed that organizational commitment was a relevant factor of both within-group and between-group differences in two variables with regards to sustainable participation in regional management organization, i.e. members’ daily participation in and willingness to continue regional activities. Furthermore, it was shown that perceived cost was positively associated with members’ participation in regional activities, while it was negatively associated with their willingness to continue those activities. An analysis of organizational commitment revealed that this factor was associated with perceived effectiveness, trust, place attachment and regional support on group level and with perceived benefit and cost, trust, place attachment and regional appreciation on individual level. Finally, implications of the present results for promoting sustainable participation in regional management organization were discussed.