Stratospheric aerosols over the high Arctic at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N, 12°E) were observed continuously for four years from March 2014 by a lidar system using the second harmonic wavelength (532 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser. Our observations reveal the seasonal features of stratospheric aerosols and the arrival of the smoke at the high Arctic from Canadian forest-fire in August 2017. We estimated the seasonal variation for three years before the Canadian forest-fire when there was no apparent volcanic effect. In the estimation, we removed polar stratospheric clouds by the threshold temperature of their formation. The seasonal variation for the three years is that the vertical profiles of the backscattering ratio take a maximum value of about 1.05-1.06 at altitudes between 13 and 16 km from December to March, and about 1.02-1.04 at altitudes between 17 and 20 km from April to November. These results are compared with the results observed at the low Arctic, northern Norway. We also present the increases in the backscattering ratio and the volume depolarization ratio from September to December 2017 caused by the smoke from the Canadian forest-fire.
In the 2019 tropical cyclone season in the western North Pacific, Typhoons FAXAI and HAGIBIS made landfall in Japan while keeping the intensity, resulting in serious disasters. This study addresses the influences of an increasing trend and variations in the upper ocean heat content above 26°C (tropical cyclone heat potential: TCHP) from January 1982 to June 2020 on FAXAI and HAGIBIS. TCHP underneath FAXAI and HAGIBIS in 2019 was higher than the climatological mean except for a part of mature phase of HAGIBIS due to HAGIBIS-induced sea surface cooling. TCHP significantly increased with the interannual oceanic variations (IOVs) in the subtropical (15-20°N, 140-150°E) and midlatitude (30-35°N, 130-140°E) areas where FAXAI and HAGIBIS intensified or kept the intensity. From an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of TCHP, we demonstrate that the leading three EOF modes of TCHP explains approximately 76.8% of total variance, but the increase in TCHP along the tracks of FAXAI and HAGIBIS particularly in the early intensification of HAGIBIS cannot be explained only by the IOVs included in the leading three EOF modes but rather by the warming trend irrespective of the IOVs.
While global warming may expand suitable places for potato cultivation in cold regions, it may reduce the yield due to the increase of hot days during the tuber growth period. This study evaluated the effects of global warming on potato cultivation over Hokkaido by dynamically-downscaled ensemble experiments called d4PDF and assessed applicability of possible adaptive measures. In this study, we define the suitable area based on the accumulated temperature and deduced a relationship between the potato yield per unit area and the number of hot days (maximum temperature > 28°C) from crop statistic data. In a warming environment with 2K or 4K increase in global-mean temperature relative to the present climate (1981-2010), the accumulated temperatures likely satisfied the criterion on potato production almost over Hokkaido. The risk of growth delay due to cold weather was projected to reduce. However, hot days in the tuber growth period would increase, reducing potato yield by 7% in a plus 2-K climate and 16% in a plus 4-K climate. This risk of yield loss would not be avoidable by moving up planting by 30 days, and the development of varieties that are tolerant to 31-33°C would be a possible way to adaptation.
Impacts of historical warming on extremely heavy rainfall induced by Typhoon Hagibis (2019) are investigated using a storyline event attribution approach with the Japan Meteorological Agency Nonhydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). Control experiments based on JMA mesoscale analysis data well reproduce the typhoon's track, intensity, and heavy precipitation. First, two non-warming experiments are conducted: One excludes both 40-year atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends from 1980 to 2019, and the other excludes the oceanic trend only. A comparison between control and non-warming experiments indicates that historical warming strengthens typhoons and increases the amount of total precipitation by 10.9% over central Japan. The difference between CTL and non-warming experiments without both atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends is larger than that without just the oceanic trend (7.3%). Additional sensitivity experiments without Japan's topography indicate that topography enhances not only total precipitation but also the changes in total precipitation due to historical warming. Through the storyline event attribution approach, it is concluded that historical warming intensifies strength of Typhoon Hagibis (2019) and enhances the extremely heavy precipitation induced by the typhoon.
This study investigated characteristics of atmospheric environmental fields in the occurrence of quasi-stationary convective bands (QSCBs) in Kyushu, western Japan during the July 2020 heavy rainfall event. We performed case studies of extreme rainfall subevents in the Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures on 3-4 July (2020KK) and northern Kyushu on 6-7 July 2020 (2020NK), compared with two heavy rainfall events in northern Kyushu in 2017 and 2018.
Nine QSCBs were objectively extracted during the July 2020 heavy rainfall event, causing hourly precipitation amounts exceeding 100 mm twenty times. In 2020KK, the environmental field with extremely large precipitable water due to low-level and middle-level humidity was affected by the upper-level cold airflow, which resulted in favorable condition for the deep convection development. Consequently, the lightning activity became high, and cloud tops were the highest in comparison to previous events. QSCBs in 2020KK and 2020NK were located along a low-level convergence line/zone associated with an inflow that had extremely large water vapor flux on the south side of the mesoscale Baiu frontal depressions. In most of the QSCB cases in 2020, mesoscale depressions were observed and enhanced horizontal winds, which led to extremely large low-level water vapor flux to produce short-term heavy rainfall.
Relationship between diurnal convection and the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) over the western Maritime Continent (MC) was investigated by a case study of an ISO event that occurred during the Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC)-Sumatra 2017 campaign. Two sets of global cloud-permitting simulations using cloud microphysics settings for ISO prediction (CTL) and for climate simulation (MOD) were performed to clarify their impacts. CTL had biases of weaker diurnal variation and smaller precipitation amounts over land than in observations; these were reduced in MOD by higher probabilities of local intense convection in the middle troposphere and higher precipitation efficiency. The enhanced convection over land coincided with suppressed convection over the surrounding ocean, especially at the diurnal peak time of land convection. Exception is the onset period of the ISO convection, when upward moisture advection and precipitation increased also over ocean in MOD than in CTL at the diurnal peak time of oceanic convection. These results suggest that the enhancement of local convection over the MC by the cloud microphysical processes basically hinder the ISO convection by the activation of land convection, but it also favors the ISO convection development over ocean during the onset period.
Typhoon Hagibis (2019) caused widespread flooding and damage over eastern Japan. The associated rainfall maxima were primarily observed on the windward mountain slopes along with the west of the leading edge of a low-level front. Concomitantly, a significant positive value in sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) was observed in association with an ocean eddy over the Oyashio region, together with anomalous warmth over the entire western North Pacific. The present study examines the role of the SSTAs in the rainfall distribution associated with Hagibis, to deepen our understanding of the influence of the midlatitude ocean on tropical cyclones and associated rainfall. Our sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the observed warm SSTAs had the potential to displace the rainfall caused by Hagibis inland and thereby acted to increase precipitation along the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. Our results suggest that midlatitude SSTAs on ocean-eddy scales can also influence the synoptic-scale atmospheric front and associated heavy rainfall.
We investigate regional characteristics of future changes in snowfall in Japan under two emission scenarios—RCP2.6 and RCP8.5—using a high-resolution regional climate model with 5 km grid spacing and discuss the influence of changes in atmospheric circulation. The high-resolution model can simulate details of changes in distributions of total snowfall in Japan. Under RCP2.6, the annual total snowfall decreases in most parts of Japan except for Japan's northern island, Hokkaido. In Hokkaido, the winter snowfall increases even under RCP8.5, especially in January and February. The snowfall peak is delayed from early December to late January in Hokkaido. Along the Sea of Japan in eastern Japan, the winter-total snowfall decreases even if the winter mean temperature is below 0°C in the future climate. The different snowfall changes in Hokkaido and on the Sea of Japan side of eastern Japan are caused by precipitation changes in each region. Future changes in atmospheric circulation related to the Aleutian low cause the enhancement and the inhibition of winter precipitation in Hokkaido and the Sea of Japan side of eastern Japan, respectively, contributing to changes in the regional characteristics of snowfall and snow cover in addition to moistening due to atmospheric and ocean warming.
Numerical experiments on Typhoon Trami (2018) using a regional 1-km-mesh three-dimensional atmosphere–ocean coupled model in current and pseudo-global warming (PGW) climates were conducted to investigate future changes of a slow-moving intense typhoon under the warming climate. Over the warmer sea in the PGW climate, the maximum near-surface wind speed rapidly increased around the large eye of the simulated Trami. The stronger winds in the PGW simulation versus the current simulation caused a 1.5-fold larger decrease of sea surface temperature (SST) in the storm core-region. In the PGW climate, near-surface air temperature increased by 3.1°C. A large SST decrease due to ocean upwelling caused downward heat fluxes from the atmosphere to the ocean. The magnitude of the SST decrease depended strongly on initial ocean conditions. Consideration of the SST decrease induced by an intense typhoon, and a slow-moving storm in particular, indicated that such a typhoon would not always become more intense under the warmer climate conditions. An atmosphere–ocean coupled model should facilitate making more reliable projections of typhoon intensities in a warming climate.