When one becomes independent from home, it's a crucial period for one to practice self discipline. During this period, it is important for one to redirect their bad dietary habit to a proper dietary habit. The purpose of this study was to investigate diet behaviors in young female students of college and junior college and to clarify the factor which has an influence on having breakfast. Data of this study is of 209 students (mean age 19 .0 ± 2.2 years) who responded to the selfadministered diet behavior questionnaire. The percentage of skipping breakfast was 35 .9%. Results of Chi-square tests showed that there was not relationship between skipping breakfast and shingle household. In the morning, a consumption of rice (58.5%) and bread (36.3%) was observed among these students. 29.2% of those reported having little interest in eating . We found that the factor related having breakfast was required eating time of breakfast using the multivariate analysis (partial correlation coefficient R = 0.641). These results suggest that having breakfast is necessary for appropriate lifestyle.
For people with mastication/swallowing disorders, meals that are cooked and prepared according to the severity of the disorder are important for improving and maintaining quality of life (QOL) and improving nutrition, but no standards have been devised in terms of meal forms. Here, a questionnaire survey on meal forms was conducted at 2000 long-term care insurance facilities covering all areas of Japan. The questionnaire divided staple dishes into “rice” “gruel” “blended gruel” “liquid meal (rice water, arrowroot gruel)”, “high-density liquid meal (tube feeding)” and “others” and side dishes into “cooked normally” “cooked to soften while maintaining original shape”, “cut into bite-sized pieces” “chopped finely into a grainy texture”. “blended to a smooth texture” “added egg, gelatin or agar and then heated or cooled to form desired size and consistency” and “others”. The results showed that staple dishes were classified into “rice” “gruel” “blended gruel” and “high-density liquid meal (tube feeding)” Side dishes were classified into the above-mentioned 6 forms and “boiled with arrowroot starch”. However, the number of meal forms varied among facilities, and classification standards for processed foods for nursing were not the same for main and side dishes. When investigating the classification of meal forms and mastication/swallowing disorders, the classification of mastication and swallowing disorders must first be investigated and then matched to the classifications of meal forms.
This study aimed to clarify the difference of physical properties of two types of biscuits: Bi, with normal nutrient contents, and PBi, with less protein to be easily triturated during mastication than Bi. Ten healthy adults (mean 28.1 ± 13.5 yrs) participated in this study. They masticated each biscuit until swallowing as usual. The bolus was collected at three different stages of mastication (after five chewing strokes, E stage; the halfway stage of mastication, M stage; immediately prior to swallowing, L stage). The texture of collected bolus was measured according to the texture profile analysis. The number of chewing strokes until swallowing of the PBi was significantly smaller than that of the Bi. The hardness of both boluses ecreased significantly during mastication. The adhesiveness of the Bi bolus increased significantly from the E to L stage, while that of the PBi bolus remained unchanged. The cohesiveness of the Bi bolus increased significantly from the E to stage and the M to L stage, whereas that of the PBi bolus increased significantly only from the M to L stage. At the L stage, though the hardness and adhesiveness of the Bi bolus were higher than those of the PBi bolus, the cohesiveness of the Bi bolus was lower than that of the PBi bolus. These findings suggest that PBi is safer and easier to masticate and swallow than Bi, and so would be more suitable for elderly people and patients with dysphagia.