This study examines the efficacy of reflection in musical thinking for problem solving.
The research methodology adopted incorporates the use of practical methods. First, we consider the issue of reflection in the context of Dewey's theory and discuss what reflection would mean with regard to musical thinking. To this end, we planned and implemented training sessions that incorporate reflection in musical thinking to promote problem solving. This paper analyzes data from records of these sessions in the context of the relationship between reflection and continuity of thought.
The function of reflection in musical thinking to promote problem solving was found to be as follows :
(1) Reflection allows the subject to objectively compare the image in his mind and the actual sound and recognize the gap between the two.
(2) It first provides the subject with clues to the cause of inconsistencies between the image and the actual sound. Then, by helping eliminate that gap, it allows the subject to make predictions to eventually narrow the gap with the image.
(3) It helps flesh out details of the image in the subject's mind through correlations made and regeneration of the image.
(4) Finally, it clarifies the image that the subject wants to express.
The purpose of this study is to reveal musical thought processes based on physical functions in the singing expressions of "Local Folk Music". The material used in the training sessions was hayashikotoba (a ‘refrain’ used for rhythmic effect in traditional Japanese music) in the Awa Odori traditional dance.
First, musical thought processes based on physical functions in singing expressions were organized in reference to the structure of “body and mind” advocated by Dewey. Next, a singing lesson using the exclamations of Awa Dancing was designed and practiced. This singing lesson included the scenes in which the physical functions of the singing expressions were demonstrated. Then, the singing, movement, comments and worksheets of the children were analyzed from the perspective of the musical thought processes based on physical functions in the singing expressions.
The following results were obtained : 1) The qualities are accepted by the body through one's past experiences regarding a folk song and his/her acts such as listening to the music, stamping and singing the song ; 2) The [Inflection in Words] being a lesson content is recognized and sensed and the qualities are identified based on the qualities accepted by the body ; 3) Focusing on how interesting the whole song is based on the identified qualities, and in addition new qualities including [Clapping and Cheering (ai-no-te)] and [Bouncing Rhythm] are identified ; and 4) If one is willing to sing based on the identified qualities, his/her singing style will change and his/her musical thinking process will change and develop.
This research aims to clarify the significances and directions of music classes using popular music by focusing on their sociological and political contexts. The problem with practices related to popular music is that they do not capture the original essences of the music. Therefore, this research looks at the sociological and political contexts and the essences of the music, using the method of musicology after post-modernism. In doing so, this paper relies on British sociologist and popular music researcher Simon Frith and discusses the essences of popular music while comparing with those contexts of classical music.
Through discussions on issues surrounding sociological and political contexts, the following could be concluded. ① Popular music can not be thought of without considering sociological contexts. ② Popular music has transformational flexibility depending on mass media, so it tends to be linked to political contexts. To understand popular music from these essences gives students new viewpoints of understanding the music, so it has significance in that it may lead to the expansion of their view of music.
From this point of view, this paper pointed out some problems in the field of listening and singing that are often dealt with, and clarified the specific directions. The following consideration results were extracted. ① Many music classes using popular music focus on historical contexts. ② Many are the main objective of understanding features of the music. In these respects, the present situations in which the essences of music were not captured became evident. I can point out that the viewpoint and the directions to overcome this situation not only to understand the music from the historical and cultural contexts noted in the Instructional Guidelines but also by understanding the music from the sociological and political contexts.
The purpose of this research is to clarify, through case analysis, how children develop musical experience in music-making that originated in their direct experiences at the “Outdoor Nature School.”
The research method employed was as follows. First, the meaning of musical experience was prescribed according to J. Dewey's empirical theory. Next, the relationship between the children's direct experiences and musical experiences at the “Outdoor Nature School” was clarified. Then, music-making was conceived and put into practice in a Constructive Activity that progressed from the “Outdoor Nature School.” In addition, a practical analysis of the selected children - based on how they developed their musical experiences - was performed. Finally, the significance of the correlation between direct experiences at the “Outdoor Nature School” with the music lessons was discussed.
In conclusion, the music students created at the “Outdoor Nature School” continued as they incorporated direct experiences into their internal worlds. The students used those experiences as a model for expression. The students used these expressions as a goal to attain, which strongly influenced the development of their musical experiences.
The purpose of this research is to develop teaching materials for singing that allow students to perceive and feel the linguistically distinctive characteristics of words. Moreover, it is hoped the materials can be used to introduce singing lessons in foreign languages at high schools, and make clear their effectiveness in an actual classroom setting.
The teaching materials have been created to emphasize the familiarity, the ease with which to feel the linguistically distinctive phonological vibrancy, and the availability of the sound quality of languages. The materials use the lyrics of the melody of the existing canon of 8 bars in five different languages - English, Italian, German, French and Japanese - titled “Let's sing in various languages”.
As a result of analysis and verification of the lessons using these teaching materials, their effectiveness has been recognized in two ways : (1) the teaching materials allow students to tackle the pronunciation of and feel a sense of familiarity with foreign languages while singing in them, and (2) the teaching materials allow students to perceive and feel the distinctive phonological vibrancy of foreign languages when comparing the languages.
As stated above, the effectiveness of the developed teaching materials has been confirmed for the purpose of research.