A BaCe0.80Zr0.10Y0.10O3-δ (BCZY) thin film with a- and c-axes orientations has been deposited on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering. The lattice constants of a- and c-axes decrease with increasing the substrate temperature (Tsub) during sputtering deposition. The as-prepared BCZY thin film has the mixed valence states of Ce4+ (4f0) and Ce3+ (4f1L) with oxygen vacancies created by high Tsub. The electrical conductivity increases with increasing Tsub, but it does not depend on oxygen partial pressure in the intermediate temperature (IMT) region between 400 and 600°C. The Ce3+ state at the LUMO level of the BCZY thin film is larger than that of BCZY bulk ceramic in which oxide ion conduction has not been observed. These results indicate that the BCZY thin film with oxygen vacancies has the high oxide ion conduction, which is required for electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells in IMT region.
The incorrect diagnosis of bacterial pathogens results in the misuse of antibiotics, a major contributor to the evolution of antibiotic resistance. The ability to rapidly identify a pathogen could facilitate more effective treatment strategies, reducing the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Current diagnostics of bacterial infections often require cell growth, and are therefore less capable of informing timely treatment options. Here, we describe the development of a rapid assay (<45 min) to identify Gram-positive bacteria directly in human serum without any growth or isolation required. We have developed a fluorescence-based immunoassay specifically targeting the Gram-positive bacterial biomarker lipoteichoic acid (LTA). LTA is an amphiphilic molecule with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions. Our approach, termed membrane insertion, exploits the amphiphilic biochemistry of the molecule by allowing it to passively insert itself into a lipid bilayer, thereby trapping it for subsequent probing with a fluorescently labeled α-LTA antibody. Using this assay, we have successfully detected less than 10 μg/ml of LTA directly in spiked human serum. We intend to combine this rapid assay with others currently in development into a diagnostic tool for point-of-care detection of bacterial pathogens.
It was previously reported acetaldehyde-induced crystallization of PET film wherein the original unoriented film is dipped in acetaldehyde for 5 min to drastically enhance its crystallinity. It was conducted additional experiments and evaluated this crystallinity by infrared, X-ray analyses. We report here a type of TX (a so-called middle crystal status) that does not lead to complete thermal shrinkage proof. By the acetaldehyde-induced process, CH2-wagging at 1340cm-1 is activated. However, the degree that a carbonyl group and a benzene ring are packed on the same plane by this solvent processing is reduced. These results are related to the improvement of heat resistance after stretching at 80°C and the highly extensional characteristics at 20°C of this stretched film after placing in boiling water.
Glycopolymers with various pendant oligosaccharides were synthesized from free saccharides without protection of the saccharide hydroxy and carboxy groups. The strategy involved direct anomeric azidation of the free saccharides, copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using the glycomonomers and trithiocarbonate derivative as a chain transfer agent. After reducing the trithiocarbonate terminal group on the polymer backbone, the resulting thiol-terminated glycopolymers were immobilized on gold nanoparticles via Au-S bound formation. The glycopolymer-decorated gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspension were specifically recognized by the corresponding lectin, with no measurable nonspecific binding.
Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA)-clay nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) having small patterns of several hundred micrometers were prepared by photoinitiated radical polymerization with the use of a patterned photomask. The irradiated region of the obtained gels became more opaque than the masked region at temperatures above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), indicating that the small patterns with modulated thermo-responsive behavior can be fabricated in the stretchable and tough PNIPA-clay NC gels.