Batch safety tests (BSTs) of veterinary vaccines are conducted using small laboratory animals to assure the safety of vaccines according to several criteria, including clinical signs and change in body weight. Although the latter is used as an evaluation index in BSTs, there have been no reports on the internal changes that affect body weight during the test period. Therefore, we analyzed BST via pathological examination of the tested animals. Here, BSTs were performed for 176 batches using mice and 126 batches using of guinea pigs. Most of the gross findings could be classified into four lesion types (nodules, adhesions, ascites, no apparent signs), with only one vaccine inducing lesions that could not be classified into any of these four types. Histopathological examination revealed that the reactions caused by BST were pyogenic and/or granulomatous inflammation. Nodular or adhesive lesions comprised more severe pyogenic granulomatous inflammation than ascites or cases with no apparent gross lesions. These nodular or adhesive lesions were more frequently induced by vaccines that contained an adjuvant than by vaccines that did not contain an adjuvant. The cases with “exceptional” gross findings histologically presented severe necrosis of the hematopoietic system. Additional testing showed that these “exceptional” lesions were induced when a specific type of light liquid paraffin was injected along with other vaccine additives. Our results show that body weight loss and/or lesions during BST were induced by proinflammatory properties of the tested vaccines and that BST is a sensitive method for detecting unexpected effects of vaccine components.
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is extremely rare in humans and animals, especially in rodents. This is the first case report on spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the neck skeletal muscle of a Crlj:CD1 (ICR) mouse (36 weeks, dead). Necropsy revealed a solid white mass located in the neck skeletal muscle (scalenus muscle). Histological examination showed that the tumor consisted of atypical polygonal cells, a small osteoid clump, and bone tissue. Mitotic figures were observed. Serial sections showed that neoplastic cells lacked clear invasive proliferation to adjacent normal skeletal muscle and continuity with normal bone tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the neoplastic cells were positive for osteocalcin, osterix, vimentin, and S-100. Based on these results, the tumor was diagnosed as extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the neck skeletal muscle.
Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) is known to induce intraocular neoplasms when injected intravitreally into the eyes of rats. Here, we found two extraocular orbital neoplasms in two different rat strains, presumably due to the leakage of locally injected Ni3S2 to the extraocular orbital tissues. In the F344/DuCrlCrlj rat, an orbital mass arose at 30 weeks after injection, and invaded into the cranium. Histologically, the orbital mass was composed of areas arranged in parallel bundles formed by densely packed elongated or spindle-shaped cells with indistinct cytoplasmic borders, and of areas of hypocellular arrangement consisting of round cells in eosinophilic myxoid-like substances. Metastases were observed in the right submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. The neoplastic cells were immunopositive for S-100 protein and vimentin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the neoplastic cells had cellular processes and pericytoplasmic basal laminae. In the RccHanTM:WIST rat, an orbital mass arose at 36 weeks after injection. Histologically, the mass consisted of rhabdoid-like large round cells with proliferation of small round-to-polygonal cells, and these neoplastic cells infiltrated into the extraocular muscles. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for desmin and vimentin. Transmission electron microscopy detected immature myofibrils with Z-band structures in the cytoplasm of these neoplastic cells. Consequently, the tumors were diagnosed as an orbital malignant schwannoma in an F344/DuCrlCrlj rat and an orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a RccHanTM:WIST rat. The results of this case report suggest that leakage of Ni3S2 to the orbit caused the induction of orbital malignant schwannoma or rhabdomyosarcoma in rats.
A swim bladder tumor was detected in one scoliotic medaka aged 22 weeks. The tumor was located in the dorsal abdominal cavity, with maximum dimension of 1,850 × 1,500 µm. No swim bladder lumen was identified, and the region where the swim bladder lumen would have been located, was replaced with adipose tissues. The tumor was a non-invasive, expansile, and encapsulated solid mass with a few cysts, and comprised a homogenous population of well-differentiated, densely packed, gas glandular epithelium-like cells. The tumor mass was connected to a rete mirabile that showed a hyperplastic capillary plexus; however, the tumor cells did not invade the rete mirabile, thereby revealing that the tumor was an adenoma originating from the gas glandular epithelium of the swim bladder. Since proliferative lesions in the swim bladder have been reported in some teleosts with skeletal deformations, including medaka, the occurrence of a spontaneous swim bladder tumor in teleosts is considered to be closely associated with various types of skeletal deformation, and spinal curvature in particular.
With the aim of sharing information about the technical aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and facilitating the selection of suitable antibodies for histopathological examination, this technical report describes the results of a questionnaire distributed during the period of 2018 to 2019 among members of the Conference on Experimental Animal Histopathology. Additionally, it describes the immunological properties and supplier details (clone, supplier, catalog number, species reactivity, etc.) as well as the IHC staining conditions (fixing solution, fixing time, embedding, antigen retrieval method, antibody dilution, incubation time, incubation temperature, positive control tissue, blocking condition, secondary antibody information, etc.) for a total of 509 primary antibodies (comprising 220 different types). These survey results were an update on the contents reported by CEAH in 2017.