Mobility Management is quite common and important methodology for transportation policy. In mobility management for sustainable urban transport, the technique of action plans has been applied to help commuters translate their intention into actual travel behavior. However, less is known about the influence of the factor, coping planning, psychologically involving both “anticipation of barriers” and “strategy for overcoming barriers” even though it has been regarded as a key role in behavior change in the fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine. Therefore, the purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to examine the roles of not merely action planning but coping planning as the proximal psychological determinants of car use behavior and pro-environmental mode use behavior, and (2) to assess the effects of requesting commuters to form personalized action plans and coping plans, respectively, on action planning and coping planning. We conducted an internet survey to 232 respondents with a car available who live in Taipei City, Taiwan. The respondents were assigned into one of three groups with action plan intervention, with action plus coping plan intervention, and without intervention. The results indicate that (1) coping planning mediates between intention and behavior, as well as between action planning and behavior; (2) owing to existing the interaction effect, the influence of action planning on behavior will be amplified if coping planning as a moderator is high; (3) forming personalized coping plans has an instant effect in promoting coping planning. Based on these findings, soft transport policy should include coping planning and related interventions for more effectively reducing car use.
Urban informality is a reality in cities of the Global South, including Sub-Saharan Africa, which has over half the urban population living in informal settlements (slums). Taking the case of three informal settlements in Nairobi (Kibera, Mathare and Mukuru) this study aimed to show how names play an important role as urban landscape symbols. The study analyses names of sub-settlements (villages) within the slums, their meanings and the socio-political processes behind them based on critical toponymic analysis. Data was collected from archival sources, focus group discussion and interviews, newspaper articles and online geographical sources. A qualitative analysis was applied on the village names and the results presented through tabulations, excerpts and maps. Categorisation of village names was done based on the themes derived from the data. The results revealed that village names represent the issues that slum residents go through including: social injustices of evictions and demolitions, poverty, poor environmental conditions, ethnic groupings among others. Each of the three cases investigated revealed a unique toponymic theme. Kibera’s names reflected a resilient Nubian heritage as well as a diverse ethnic composition. Mathare settlements reflected political struggles with a dominance of political pioneers in the village toponymy. Mukuru on the other hand, being the newest settlement, reflected a more global toponymy-with five large villages in the settlement having foreign names. Ultimately, the study revealed that ethnic heritage and politics, socio-economic inequalities and land injustices as well as globalization are the main factors that influence the toponymy of slums in Nairobi.
In order to achieve a reduction of medical care and long-term care expenses, the center of the health care and long-term care policies have been shifting to the region and home from the facility, and urgently needed to construction of Community-Based Comprehensive Care System in Japan. The roles of Primary Care Physician (PCP) is important providing to the comprehensive home-based care that assure the QOL in the elderly. It is necessary to examine the provision system of home care services with a focus on PCP. In japan, a home care support hospital and clinic (Home Care Support Services: HCSS) is provided as medical institutions to assume a role of those PCP.
Purpose of this study is to get the knowledge for the evaluation methodology of home-based care environment for elderly people. Methodology of this paper is analysis a general service-providing area of the home-based medical care and long-term care, and analysis about Area of Primary Care with a focus on HCSS in the perspective of the density of population and facility according to geographical characteristics.
In Tochigi prefecture, according to the cover rate of elderly population for each local authorities, the cover rate of mountainous and intermountain area is relatively lower than others. Burden on providing of home-based care service of HCSS (or PCP) is small in the urban area and suburban area, and that is large in the rural area and mountainous and intermountain area. Current situation of the large burden on the providing of home-based care service of HCSS (or PCP) is a serious problem in rural area and mountainous and intermountain area. After all in these areas, there is a situation that must rely on admission facilities such as special nursing home. It is a dilemma of Japan that has aimed to build the comprehensive community care system centered on the home life.