Rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on Asian countries. Rehabilitating and revitalizing old inner-city areas in Asian countries have become essential to preserving cultural assets. With the development of old inner-city areas as urban heritage sites, determining which sustainability approach is optimal has also been a concern. Many countries in Asia have aggressively developed unique strategies for heritage conservation. In order to define the differences of rehabilitation methods and revitalization strategies in different cities and determine the implication to the area, this study is conducted for the following aims: i) To compare rehabilitation methods and revitalization policies and strategies in the old inner-city areas of rapidly growing cities in Asia by referring to four cases: Penang (George Town), Hanoi (Ancient Quarter), Shanghai (Tianzifang and Xintiandi), and Tokyo (Yanaka District); ii) To study the trends in the use of historical buildings in the cities. Target comparative in this study are “physical and manmade environment”, “sociocultural environment”, and “economic environment” in the four cities. This research uses primary data obtained in site visits and secondary data collected from archive departments, libraries, online database and local authorities. Site survey was conducted to observe the site according to the elements of the current condition and impact of heritage conservation and tourist. Observation was done by watching the site condition, and recorded in qualitative format (note-taking and photographing for case study). In addition, short interviews were engaged with local authorities and related organizations, residents and shop owner or staffs as well. In conclusion, two types of methods have generated different results. Firstly, by preserving the building structure with strict conservation rules and regulations, it has sustained a distinguishable identity and landscape feature for the places. Proper physical spatial planning and environment preservation framework are implemented. These cities specialize in tourism sector with new and creative commercial activities. It has encouraged the development of traditional craft industry through the production of innovative products. Consequently, job opportunities for local people have increased and thus boosted the local economy. However, conflict between tourism activities and the lifestyle of local community has occurred. Secondly, preserving the entire environment by using management or control of urban planning / land use method, and consensus building method have encouraged community activities and generated authentic ambience in the cities. Socio cultural elements that are compatible and harmonized with local business (traditional industry) remain as the main attraction for tourists. However, issues related to living condition and the inconsistency in implementing the preservation effort need to be tackled. Therefore, this study has concluded that both preservation methods have brought different kinds of tourism effect for the cities. It could be a reference for other cities when making decision to preserve its cultural heritage site.
This paper develops a model for determining the sufficient number of stations for alterna tive fuel vehicles. The model extends a previous model to incorporate both ?ow demand and the trip length distribution, thereby providing a more appropriate framework for esti mating the sufficient number of stations. The service level is represented as the probability that the vehicle can make the repeated round trip between randomly selected origin and destination. The probability is obtained for the random pattern of stations for three cases:fuel is available at both origin and destination, fuel is available at either origin or destina tion, and fuel is available at neither origin nor destination. The analytical expressions for the probability demonstrate how the number of stations, the trip length, the vehicle range,and the refueling availability at origin and destination affect the service level of stations.The number of stations required to achieve a certain level of service is then calculated.
A certain amount of vacant houses is indispensable for the well-functioning of the housing market. On the other hand, excessive vacant houses including surplus houses from rental or sale market, abandoned houses, etc., would gradually accumulate in amount and degrade in quality to impose significant externalities to form a vicious cycle to deteriorate the neighborhood. Until now, literatures for vacant houses are focus on the negative influences of the excessive vacant houses or some individual reutilization cases. However there is lacking a pre-condition for those literatures, which is what the proper amount of vacancies is and what extra is. The paper provides a brand new angle to view the issue of vacant houses to support the management of the housing market and vacant houses by producing an ideal vacancy rate. The optimal vacancy rate in the housing rental market means the vacancy rate that required for the landlords to search for the tenants, and in the search process the landlord will maximize the present value of return with the optimal list rent strategy. In Tokyo (23 wards), the optimal vacancy rate for the housing rental market is found to be 1.96%. Comparing to the actual vacancy rate in the housing rental market, large part of the vacant houses are structural vacancies which can barely be rented out. There is large social cost caused by the excessive vacancies in the housing rental market in Tokyo, which is against the sustainable development, and responding management policies are in need as well.
Jakarta has been experiencing rapid urbanization and severe housing shortage, especially for the under privileged. This condition breeds slum, or kampong in Indonesia, as solution to provide affordable housing. In the absence of right of ownership, as the basis of objective secure tenure, kampong dwellers have been delivering self-help house improvements. It proves subjective tenure security, as alternative of objective tenure security, encourages self-help housing. The research aims are identifying the general condition of landownership, the other factors of subjective tenure security that become impediment of land titling program and its implication to house condition in Kampong Cikini, Jakarta, as the research area. The information was obtained from 79 respondents by utilizing snowball technique sampling. The findings indicated only small numbers of respondents obtained right of ownership, while most of respondents claimed landownership based on documents that referred to colonial, customary and religion laws. It described inadequate knowledge of the land regulation of kampong dwellers, following by expensive and complicated procedure, as the impediment of land titling program. Escalating land price, kampong improvements programs and support from political parties become other factors that strengthen subjective tenure security which encourage self-help house improvements. This research is not only complemented the existing theory of subjective tenure security but also demonstrated how the intricate tenure security and its implication to self-help housing improvements in kampong settlement. It will useful on refining the the new implemented intervention to improve kampong without degrading formal land titling program.
Taking up the case of Ushiku City, Ibaraki, Japan, this study examines the situation of land vacancy in the outer suburbs of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region, where shrinking and growing parts are juxtaposed within a complicated patchwork of settlements. In order to discuss short-term planning approaches with regard to compact city policies, an examination of development period, changes in vacant lot quantity, and current land use was carried out along with a questionnaire survey focusing on the social aspects of land vacancy such as maintenance and utilization activities, opinions towards vacant lots, and residential satisfaction. Three districts were chosen to represent the key development patterns of the outer suburbs, in terms of development method and distance from the station. They are, a large-scale “last-minute development” built under the Former Housing and Urban Development Law in areas far from the station, a large-scale comprehensively planned development near the station using “land readjustment”, and small-scale minikaihatsu, accumulating at the edge of the UPA.
The key finding was that the settlement near the station contained higher vacant lot rates, but opinions towards them were overall more positive compared to that of the settlement on the fringe of the UPA with fewer vacant lots. The settlement within the UCA contained the largest proportion of vacant lots, the majority of which were unmaintained, opinions towards them were negative, and residential satisfaction was contrastingly low. Results indicate how complementary short-term planning goals, defining levels of regulation and support, should be set at periodic intervals, according to how vacant lot rates may fluctuate in the near future, as well as the community's capacity to prevent negative externalities.
Uncontrolled growth in Greater Jakarta has reduced the green area in Jakarta’s neighboring municipalities. Projected population growth and associated growth in housing will cause further loss of green areas. Spatial planning laws in these municipalities and the application of a national target for urban green areas in each city have been implemented in an attempt to mitigate the loss of green areas. However, further loss of green areas since these laws were issued shows that there are underlying problems in their enactment. Tangerang Selatan has been nominated as a new center for residential, service and trading activities, which provides an opportunity for policy change to mitigate the loss of urban green space in peripheral municipalities. This paper aims to mitigate further loss of green areas in Tangerang Selatan by identifying the underlying problems for green area provision in Tangerang Selatan through analysis of the current regulations and their implementation in different types of development. Findings indicated that achieving sufficient urban green area is a challenge in Tangerang Selatan due to insufficient planning and monitoring capabilities. However, it is found that private sector has the potential for collaboration in green area provision.
Seniors without adequate access to public transportation suffer from a lack of mobility after they stop driving as they mostly depend on urban structure, denoted by population distribution. This study estimates past and future numbers and distribution of seniors facing a mobility crisis by applying spatial analysis to the greater Tokyo region, which could be severely impacted by this issue in the near future. In addition, we explore how the past migration contributes to the number and distribution of seniors with poor access to transit by cohort analysis. The data include the national census from 1980 to 2010, future population projections up to 2040, railway station locations, and bus routes. In conclusion, we have succeeded to estimate the number and distribution of seniors with poor access to transit in the subregional level. The total number increased from 324,702 in 1980 to 758,336 in 2010 and can reach 1,394,074 in 2040. In addition, the rates of the seniors without train access increased from 43% in 1980 to 46% in 2010 and can reach 49% in 2040, whereas those without rail or bus access were 15% in 1980, 10% in 2010, and can reach 12% in 2040. Moreover, the cohort analysis indicates that the number and distribution of seniors without access to transit largely depend on the migration of those who bought their house with poor access to transit at around 30 years and the gradual migration of those who bought their house with poor access to transit after that age.
A wide variety of microdata offer great potential for the advancement of small area demographic estimation. This study proposes a method to estimate residents’ attributes at the street block level using survey microdata and spatial microdata (GIS building data), demonstrating the method in a Tokyo ward area. The proposed method is shown to be superior to alternatives using limited microdata. This method includes (1) modeling housing composition for each block based on dwelling unit information from spatial microdata, (2) establishing the statistical relationship between housing and demographic attributes through a small area cross tabulation technique using survey microdata, and (3) allocating demographic attributes to street blocks based on this small area-specific relationship. Housing composition is defined by building type and dwelling size and is constrained by small area totals of the census. The Tokyo ward area contains high-density built-up districts and is characterized by vertical population extension and resident diversity. In spite of this complex residential structure, the accuracy assessment indicates that the proposed method performs well and presents a more accurate estimation than any other methods using limited microdata. This finding stresses the effectiveness of combining different types of microdata, which not only allows spatial refinement but also reflects neighborhood heterogeneity of the relationship between housing and demography.
This study observes the case study of the “Nakhon Sawan Community Development Organisation,” which is a network of 21 low-income communities in Nakhon Sawan City Municipality in Thailand. This network’s adaptive activities before, during, and after the mega flood in Thailand in 2011 are considered to be progressive. This study tries to investigate 1) What types of social network/capital can promote building adaptive capacities to flooding in low-income communities, and 2) Poor urban communities’ processes and conditions to form social capital that lead to building adaptive capacity. In this study, three types of social capital–bonding, bridging, and linking social capital–are used for analysis, and these three types are classified at three levels: local, national, and international. From the research, it is revealed that 1) From normal time to during and after the flood, bonding social capital, or the community network, is the basis of adaptive activities, 2) Bonding social capital can carry out adaptive activities in combination with linking and bridging social capital at national and international levels, 3) Low-income communities’ first step to expand its social networks with other organizations is uniting within a community and collaborating with neighborhood communities, and 4) A multi-layered, low-income community network system is effective for disaster management.
Japan's wartime city planning and housing policy was the prototype for city planning in the postwar-era. The greatest issue for wartime city planning was the construction of military plants in local regions.This study aimed at clarifying the relationship between industrial development and the legal city planning of the Nippon Steel Co. Ltd. (NSC) during World War II, with a focus on the cases of the Muroran, Kamaishi, Hirohata and Yahata (Yawata) Works.
The Japanese steel industry originated with NSC, which was founded as a national policy company through the consolidation of steelworks in 1934. Legal city planning was developed in relation to the construction of four huge steelworks: Muroran, Kamaishi, Hirohata and Yahata. City-planned streets were instituted in four cities with steelworks. However other legal city planning was different. The result of this research represents legal city planning for industrial development during World War II. The cases of industrial city planning during the war shared the principle of an air defense system. In contrast, advanced city planning notions such as “planning unit” and “regional planning” were introduced in accordance with the sizes of the respective cities.
One of the most traditional and growing major cities in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah City established building design standards for villas and apartments in 1960. These design standards have changed several times in response to population increases. However, these standards have had adverse effects on streets: 1) motorization has created pressure on planned neighborhood streets, which resulted in an unsafe environment for pedestrians who must share the road with vehicles. 2) Because of the lack of availability apartments in mixed land-use neighborhoods, the municipality has allowed apartments to be built in desirable villa neighborhoods. Apartment and villa neighborhoods had been separated until 2007 because of privacy concerns. The new combination of buildings has resulted in a loss of privacy in villas overlooked by apartment buildings. Apartment residents are also parking their cars in villas’ front yards because of a parking shortage. This study aims to 1) make spatial configuration arrangements of design standards, 2) define the spatial configuration combinations of streets and residential buildings by analyses of the expanding urbanization process, and 3) identify the issues with streets and determine a method to avoid such issues in future neighborhood planning. This study found: 1) a reality gap in design standards, such as the setback line and its relation to parking spaces, 2) unsuitable assumptions regarding car ownership per household, which resulted in a parking shortage, and 3) that resident use of sidewalk spaces as a semiprivate space negatively impacts the pedestrian environment.
This study is aimed at clarifying how Kobe City, Japan’s pioneering city in the field of disaster preparedness, has worked to establish water and greenery networks in an advanced approach. It examines how the function of water and greenery networks has changed over time depending on the needs of the times and what strategies have been taken to improve certain areas. The study covers the “Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces” that was drawn up in 1985, the “Green Basic Plan 2000” that was formulated after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, and the recently-revised “Green Basic Plan 2011”.
The result showed that at the regional level, only the 2000 plan drawn up after the 1995 disaster dealt with water and greenery networks from a wide perspective covering the entire region. At the area level, the urban area has grown into a densely populated area, despite having undergone the natural disasters. The urban area was devastated by the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake that occurred directly underneath. In each plan, therefore, concrete planning and strategies were described regarding networking elements, their locations, and connecting methods. The 2000 plan was the first to have indicated the disaster prevention green axes systematically from the viewpoint of urban disaster prevention for the urban area and its vicinities. The 2011 plan provided concrete strategies for the disaster prevention green axes that were systematized in the 2000 plan, in consideration of their unique features.