Rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on Asian countries. Rehabilitating and revitalizing old inner-city areas in Asian countries have become essential to preserving cultural assets. With the development of old inner-city areas as urban heritage sites, determining which sustainability approach is optimal has also been a concern. Many countries in Asia have aggressively developed unique strategies for heritage conservation. In order to define the differences of rehabilitation methods and revitalization strategies in different cities and determine the implication to the area, this study is conducted for the following aims: i) To compare rehabilitation methods and revitalization policies and strategies in the old inner-city areas of rapidly growing cities in Asia by referring to four cases: Penang (George Town), Hanoi (Ancient Quarter), Shanghai (Tianzifang and Xintiandi), and Tokyo (Yanaka District); ii) To study the trends in the use of historical buildings in the cities. Target comparative in this study are “physical and manmade environment”, “sociocultural environment”, and “economic environment” in the four cities. This research uses primary data obtained in site visits and secondary data collected from archive departments, libraries, online database and local authorities. Site survey was conducted to observe the site according to the elements of the current condition and impact of heritage conservation and tourist. Observation was done by watching the site condition, and recorded in qualitative format (note-taking and photographing for case study). In addition, short interviews were engaged with local authorities and related organizations, residents and shop owner or staffs as well. In conclusion, two types of methods have generated different results. Firstly, by preserving the building structure with strict conservation rules and regulations, it has sustained a distinguishable identity and landscape feature for the places. Proper physical spatial planning and environment preservation framework are implemented. These cities specialize in tourism sector with new and creative commercial activities. It has encouraged the development of traditional craft industry through the production of innovative products. Consequently, job opportunities for local people have increased and thus boosted the local economy. However, conflict between tourism activities and the lifestyle of local community has occurred. Secondly, preserving the entire environment by using management or control of urban planning / land use method, and consensus building method have encouraged community activities and generated authentic ambience in the cities. Socio cultural elements that are compatible and harmonized with local business (traditional industry) remain as the main attraction for tourists. However, issues related to living condition and the inconsistency in implementing the preservation effort need to be tackled. Therefore, this study has concluded that both preservation methods have brought different kinds of tourism effect for the cities. It could be a reference for other cities when making decision to preserve its cultural heritage site.
This paper develops a model for determining the sufficient number of stations for alterna tive fuel vehicles. The model extends a previous model to incorporate both ?ow demand and the trip length distribution, thereby providing a more appropriate framework for esti mating the sufficient number of stations. The service level is represented as the probability that the vehicle can make the repeated round trip between randomly selected origin and destination. The probability is obtained for the random pattern of stations for three cases:fuel is available at both origin and destination, fuel is available at either origin or destina tion, and fuel is available at neither origin nor destination. The analytical expressions for the probability demonstrate how the number of stations, the trip length, the vehicle range,and the refueling availability at origin and destination affect the service level of stations.The number of stations required to achieve a certain level of service is then calculated.
A certain amount of vacant houses is indispensable for the well-functioning of the housing market. On the other hand, excessive vacant houses including surplus houses from rental or sale market, abandoned houses, etc., would gradually accumulate in amount and degrade in quality to impose significant externalities to form a vicious cycle to deteriorate the neighborhood. Until now, literatures for vacant houses are focus on the negative influences of the excessive vacant houses or some individual reutilization cases. However there is lacking a pre-condition for those literatures, which is what the proper amount of vacancies is and what extra is. The paper provides a brand new angle to view the issue of vacant houses to support the management of the housing market and vacant houses by producing an ideal vacancy rate. The optimal vacancy rate in the housing rental market means the vacancy rate that required for the landlords to search for the tenants, and in the search process the landlord will maximize the present value of return with the optimal list rent strategy. In Tokyo (23 wards), the optimal vacancy rate for the housing rental market is found to be 1.96%. Comparing to the actual vacancy rate in the housing rental market, large part of the vacant houses are structural vacancies which can barely be rented out. There is large social cost caused by the excessive vacancies in the housing rental market in Tokyo, which is against the sustainable development, and responding management policies are in need as well.
Jakarta has been experiencing rapid urbanization and severe housing shortage, especially for the under privileged. This condition breeds slum, or kampong in Indonesia, as solution to provide affordable housing. In the absence of right of ownership, as the basis of objective secure tenure, kampong dwellers have been delivering self-help house improvements. It proves subjective tenure security, as alternative of objective tenure security, encourages self-help housing. The research aims are identifying the general condition of landownership, the other factors of subjective tenure security that become impediment of land titling program and its implication to house condition in Kampong Cikini, Jakarta, as the research area. The information was obtained from 79 respondents by utilizing snowball technique sampling. The findings indicated only small numbers of respondents obtained right of ownership, while most of respondents claimed landownership based on documents that referred to colonial, customary and religion laws. It described inadequate knowledge of the land regulation of kampong dwellers, following by expensive and complicated procedure, as the impediment of land titling program. Escalating land price, kampong improvements programs and support from political parties become other factors that strengthen subjective tenure security which encourage self-help house improvements. This research is not only complemented the existing theory of subjective tenure security but also demonstrated how the intricate tenure security and its implication to self-help housing improvements in kampong settlement. It will useful on refining the the new implemented intervention to improve kampong without degrading formal land titling program.
Taking up the case of Ushiku City, Ibaraki, Japan, this study examines the situation of land vacancy in the outer suburbs of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region, where shrinking and growing parts are juxtaposed within a complicated patchwork of settlements. In order to discuss short-term planning approaches with regard to compact city policies, an examination of development period, changes in vacant lot quantity, and current land use was carried out along with a questionnaire survey focusing on the social aspects of land vacancy such as maintenance and utilization activities, opinions towards vacant lots, and residential satisfaction. Three districts were chosen to represent the key development patterns of the outer suburbs, in terms of development method and distance from the station. They are, a large-scale “last-minute development” built under the Former Housing and Urban Development Law in areas far from the station, a large-scale comprehensively planned development near the station using “land readjustment”, and small-scale minikaihatsu, accumulating at the edge of the UPA.
The key finding was that the settlement near the station contained higher vacant lot rates, but opinions towards them were overall more positive compared to that of the settlement on the fringe of the UPA with fewer vacant lots. The settlement within the UCA contained the largest proportion of vacant lots, the majority of which were unmaintained, opinions towards them were negative, and residential satisfaction was contrastingly low. Results indicate how complementary short-term planning goals, defining levels of regulation and support, should be set at periodic intervals, according to how vacant lot rates may fluctuate in the near future, as well as the community's capacity to prevent negative externalities.
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