The rapid urbanization of Greater Jakarta has resulted in the existence of slum areas. Some of them were inhabited along the riverside and were purged by the Governments in order to prevent a flood. Residents of the settlements were then relocated to the high-rise low-cost public housing named Rusunawa Jatinegara Barat. Literature and previous studies have stated that high-rise settlements pose problems for its residents, and social interaction was one of them. Physical factor also plays an essential role in this problem. For example, the social interaction of upper-floor residents might be different compared to that of lower-floor residents. This research aims to study changes after relocation and the pattern difference of social interaction between upper- and lower-residents. The research will be done through quantitative analysis using Wilcoxon test to show the significant changes after relocation and later a Chi-square test in order to see whether there were any significant differences in terms of social interaction between the upper-floor and lower-floor residents. From this study, first, it was discovered that in the case of Rusunawa Jatinegara Barat, the frequency of visiting neighbors was the most significant change after the relocation. Second, there were several significant pattern differences in social interaction between upper- and lower-floor residents including the frequency of having interaction, the location of where residents spend their free time and have social interaction, and perception of the number of friends.
Tourism sites under increasing pressures is expected to apply the concept of “Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC)” for planning and management. In the context of natural protected areas, it is said that considering various managerial dimensions and tourists’ experiential dimensions with resource dimensions to determine the extent of changes that are acceptable is more realistic, as ecosystem changes are dynamic and cannot be easily identified over short periods. This approach is known as the “Limits of Acceptable Change” (LAC)”, but the LAC approach and its methodologies are still evolving. This study therefore aimed to develop a framework for measuring the experiential dimension of the LAC approach, focusing on the Rock Islands Southern Lagoon (RISL) in Palau. We used six indicators defined through the preliminary research, and did experimental surveys with the structured questionnaire, the line census and the noise investigation for collecting both subjective and objective data. Results indicated that tourists’ experiential satisfaction was remarkably high which could outweigh concerns about congestion.
On the other hand, the analysis of the relation among indicators illustrated a candidate threshold of the number of visitors at a time, although we cannot be decisive with only one-time research. From the perspective of the evaluation of the methods, we found that subjective data was not effective in some cases as they could be too affected by personal background to reproduce an actual condition at the site. Further research including surveys on the resource dimension are needed for obtaining more reliable results for developing the LAC approach.
Informal settlements are integral in the forms of urbanization across the global south. They differ greatly in character and do not conform to zoning regulations. Notwithstanding their variations, however, they share some characteristics: inadequate housing, insufficient and/or inappropriate living space, lack or poor public services and utilities.
In Rwanda, informal settlements emerged in and around the capital City of Kigali (hereinafter referred to CoK) since its creation early 20th century, due to the flux of rural-urban migration. Since 2007, the CoK published its Master Plan. Concerning non-formal settlements chapter, it recommended the on-site upgrading and clearance or relocation of critical informal sites. Listed herewith are countermeasures against new informal settlements and alleviation of pressure of housing demand: elaboration and implementation of urban planning and development tools (1); informal settlement upgrading strategies (2); development of secondary cities (3).
This research focuses the on-site upgrading of informal settlements as a sustainable solution that leaves intact the residents’ socio-economic networks. Many researches talked about this solution. Yet, there is no clear guidelines of best upgrading practices. This research points out clustering formations of dwellings typologies with respect to available public infrastructures and services.
The findings from this research will serve a basis to prepare adequate physical plans responding to the needs of informal dwellers in particular, and formalizing the informal in general. To carry out this research, we collected data by on-site surveys and interviews. We subjected the data to dimension-reduction tools and we found a consistent patterning between housing typologies and public infrastructures and services.
This paper develops an analytical model for determining the number of flow demand facilities that cover trips. The proportions of covered trips within a specified deviation distance are derived for grid and random patterns of facilities. The analytical expressions for the proportions of covered trips demonstrate how the deviation distance, the number of facilities, and the pattern of facilities affect the level of coverage. The number of facilities required to achieve a certain level of coverage is then obtained. The coverage level is represented as the combination of the deviation distance and the proportion of covered trips. The coverage by the second nearest facility is also considered for the random pattern to deal with the case where facilities are subject to failures. The model incorporates any level of coverage and provides a versatile framework for determining the number of flow demand facilities.
Since the economic crisis, the informal business has become one of the most important factors which characterize the urban environment. The informal sector consists up multiple, different job types one of which is street vending. This study examines street vending by comparing and contrasting groups of street vendors. In this analysis, detailed information of the social demographic characteristics, earnings, aspirations, and perceptions of this type of work are used. Data collection was carried out at vendors concentrations in Makassar City which are located in a special area by using quantitative methods based on interviews and questionnaire forms distributed to the street vendors.
This study shows that for various functions which are grounded on land-use planning for which street vendors have different local codes for city identity, policymakers should consider these when framing public policies. Accordingly, this paper calls for the need to shed light on these conditions, not only due to their importance for city of Makassar but also due to the potential to transform our understanding.
As Japan is expected to enter a long period of population decline, the house vacancy ratio in Japanese cities is expected to increase. Therefore, efficient house vacancy surveying methods are required to accelerate research on housing vacancies in Japan. In this study, a standardized vacancy surveying method is developed. This method is fast and independent of the subjectivity of the surveying personnel, allowing the surveying process to be easily streamlined. This surveying method–which provides a vacancy ratio at a resolution of 250 𝑚–was applied to selected parts of Kyoto city. The results of the survey were analyzed to examine the zonal variation of the residential characteristics of the study areas. The insights obtained from that analysis were then used to develop dwelling units estimation models for two of the residential zoning classes in Japan. The newly developed zonal models provide an accurate estimation of the volume of dwelling units and consequently vacant dwelling units in target areas. Hence, they provide researchers and municipalities with a tool to identify areas with a high concentration of vacant dwelling units in the exclusively low-rise and mid/high-rise residential zoning classes in Japan.