Chlorine compounds for disinfection and bleaching frequently induce health hazards. Sodium hypochlorite undergoes hydrolysis in water to produce hypochlorous acid, which exerts an antiseptic effect. Hypochlorous acid also erodes metal waste pipes. When mixed with hydrochloric acid used for toilet cleaning or other acidic detergents, hypochlorous acid produces toxic chlorine gas, inhalation of which causes severe respiratory impairments such as pulmonary edema. In order to prevent infection of Legionella pneumophila, sodium hypochlorite may be dissolved in hot-spring water. However, hypochlorous acids react with nitrogen compounds to produce chloramine, which shows little antiseptic effect. Entering chlorinated swimming pools increases the risk of developing asthma and exacerbates allergic diseases.In order to prevent infection of noroviruses, the predominant cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, it is important to refrain from eating raw foods such as oysters, to exclude infected persons from cooking and putting meals on the table, and to wipe contaminated toilets, door knobs, handrails, and wall switches with a sodium hypochlorite water solution. Vomitous matter and stools should be removed first, and then the floor should be wiped with a paper towel soaked in sodium hypochlorite water solution. Spraying with the solution is not recommended because inhalation of spray from aerosols containing sodium hypochlorite can cause impairment of health. Good hand hygiene is the most important action for preventing norovirus infection. As norovirus shows resistance to alcohol, frequent washing with soap and running water for a minimum of 20 seconds is the most effective method of maintaining good hand hygiene.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of Shintoist ideals of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in nursery schools and kindergartens in the Kyushu area. We will analyze these features by focusing on Shintoist words, phrases, and events or activities (with up to 22 cases) in ECEC.
From KH coder analysis, it is clear that the cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity in Shintoism is key. The energy of a child’s pure spirit is described as “Kiyoku-Tadashiku-Akarui.” “Kiyoku” means that a child’s spirit is as pure as the gods’. “Tadashiku” means that children should behave honestly. “Akarui” means that the energy of a child’s pure spirit should appear smiling and communicate with people honestly. The grove of the village shrine is an important environment of ECEC in Shintoist nursery schools and kindergartens. Children are cultivated in its nature.
In short, the grove of the village shrine is an important feature of Shintoist ideals of ECEC in nursery schools and kindergartens in the Kyushu area.
The purpose of this research is to understand the effects that changes in body position have on muscular activity of accessory muscles during vocalization．
Subjects were 14 healthy adults with no medical history of respiratory, musculoskeletal, or vocal organ issues．
Measurements were made at three positions: supine, seated, and standing. Sound pressure level during maximum vocalization and muscular activity of rectus abdominis and abdominal external oblique muscles were measured．
A trend was observed for greater sound pressure level at maximum vocalization when standing compared to when seated （p=0.056）. No significant difference in rectus abdominis muscle activity was observed between the body positions. Significantly higher muscle activity for abdominal external oblique muscles when supine compared to when seated was observed （p<0.05）.
This research suggests that muscular activity of the accessory muscles of respiration during maximum vocalization changes due to differences in body position. This is expected to be of use for deciding on body position when practicing vocalization．
While studies of factors related to the outbreaks of aspiration pneumonia have been reported in the context of rehabilitation wards and long-term health care facilities for the elderly, they do not appear with reference to medical long-term care sanatoriums. Accordingly, by clarifying factors related to the outbreak of aspiration pneumonia in medical long-term care sanatoriums with Hospital A, this study seeks to help prevent outbreaks of aspiration pneumonia in a manner tailored to the characteristics of facilities.
In terms of method, information was retrospectively collected from medical records for the residents of the target facility and then studied with respect to their relevance to aspiration pneumonia. Thereafter, characteristic factors were extracted by comparison with other facilities.
Consequently, six items were extracted as related factors; namely, intensity of long-term care, history of respiratory illness, JCS dysphagia grade, the presence or absence of oral ingestion, and ADL category. In comparison with other facilities, three factors were extracted; namely, the history of respiratory illness, the presence or absence of oral ingestion, and JCS.
On the basis of this survey, it was suggested that the history of respiratory illness, the presence or absence of oral ingestion, and JCS represent characteristic factors for medical long-term care sanatoriums with Hospital A.
In this study, we focused on the difficulties in continuing learning at a certified care worker training vocational college in terms of the factors, the backgrounds, and the correspondence of teachers for students studying, with a keyword of “non-cognitive skills” to form relationships. As a result, we created the following concepts in the factors and the backgrounds; “withdrawal from members,” “self-centered view of the world,” and “isolating action” in the factors; “ideal child image” and “deprivation of skills to form opportunity” in the background. In addition, we generated these concepts in the correspondence of teachers for students studying “individual interview,” “individual guidance,” “information sharing with other teachers,” and “contact to family.”
In conclusion, this study suggests that the problems of the difficulties to continue learning occurs at the developmental stages of the human relationship ability.
The problems of business and human rights have become attracting attention through the mass media since the 1990s, and it is one of the problems of the international community. Currently, we are moving to the stage of implementing initiatives centered around the UN Human Rights Council “Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights” （2011） in each country. When introducing so-called “international norms” such as the Guiding Principles, etc. into domestic policies, how will each country position it in each legal system?
In this paper, we first focus on the actual characteristics of this international norm and clarify its influence and effectiveness. Next, after clarifying the Constitutional points on incorporating the Guiding Principles into domestic policies, we analyze the current situation and problems of Japan compared with EU countries, which are developed countries in this field. Then, it became clear that there are differences in acceptance situation depending on the domestic constitution and the legal position respectively.
The purpose of this research is to consider future administrative issues for social workers in prisons, etc., and the social workers’ ideal situation, by broadly considering issues such as the placement of social workers in prisons, etc., based on administrative reform and the legal revision of the former Prison Law to the Act on Penal Detention Facilities and Treatment of Inmates and Detainees.
As a result of our research, we consider that the following relate to the ideal situation of social workers in prisons, etc.: (1) providing work arrangements and work guidelines, (2) maintaining a system of supervision, (3) gaining knowledge and technical skills as social workers, (4) developing and putting into practice lifestyle models, and (5) gaining an understanding of victims.
The purpose of this paper is to consider that “kaigo (caregiving)” is a socioeconomic cost and is not a consumption-style cost but rather an investment cost. Considering “kaigo” as an investment cost, I explain its two meanings of: support of the productive activity of the “kaigo” recipient, and the prevention of a decrease in productivity when “kaigo” is provided by family members and others.
Furthermore, when “kaigo” does not have a productivity meaning and becomes consumption-style “kaigo,” the meaning of the survival of elderly “kaigo” recipients must be questioned at a fundamental level. The issue of the meaning of survival in old age is directly linked to the issue of people’s basic value as human beings. Therefore, questioning the socio-economic meaning of “kaigo” is an important task.
The term “kaigo” means actions related to support of the activities of a person who is able to carry out only limited activities due to a disability or the like.