Although international cooperation projects are widely implemented under the rhetoric stressing the significance of a participatory and community-based approach, scant evidence indicates truly positive and sustainable outcomes. Despite the growing number of researchers and practitioners who insist on the importance of developing a bottom-up and community-driven approach that ensures a community＇s sense of ownership, few researchers have succeeded in developing a concrete model based on empirical data. This article aims to explore a feasible model that enables strengthening of local community＇s sense of ownership through an international cooperation project. It is based on an experience gleaned from a peatland fire prevention project supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) implemented in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In-depth, semistructured interviews suggest that sufficient opportunities for communities to discuss, make decisions and act for themselves through facilitation, and connection with different stakeholders within a network to enable access to a locally appropriate knowledge base may be an efficient and effective way to strengthen a sense of ownership. It is also a pathway to achieve sustainable community development with the use of donors＇ external support. In addition, this study＇s findings imply that initiating a discussion on livelihood-related topics and gradually sharing information on risks caused by environmental destruction may enhance community members＇sense of ownership toward environmental conservation activities.
The discussions on and monitoring of the conservation/restoration of Watarase-yusuichi （flood control basin in English）registered as the Ramsar site are going on, with active participation of stakeholders. This is the challenge to the integrated management of wetland. However, Watarase-yusuichi is a part of the Watarase River, the basin of which once suffered serious damages by the Ashio Copper Mine Pollution Case, and has been affected by continuous sand and flood disasters. The Ramsar Convention requires the integration of wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management through ecosystem-based approaches. Since the Basic Plan of the conservation/restoration of Watarase-yusuichi focuses solely on the excavation of the reservoir, the option of reconnecting the wetland with rivers needs to be considered. By utilizing multifunction of ecosystem including water flow, adaptive management possibly balances flood control and conservation/restoration. The management of Watarase-yusuichi, therefore, has possibilities and advantages in the implementation of Integrated River Basin Management （IRBM），as the Watarase River Basin management, because ① there exist certain institutions where stakeholders of the river basins actively participate, ②common historical and geographical backgrounds shared among the stakeholders living all along the Watarase River Basin require river basin management, and ③a variety of citizen＇s actions are practiced throughout the whole river basin. Such integration would be a good model of the wise use of wetland, as well as a historical lesson for us and for developing countries.
The cycle of flood and drought in Thailand have become a serious problem recently. Yom River Basin is one of the major basins in Thailand which always face with this cycle. Since there is no large reservoir for water management in Yom River basin, it causes the serious effect in this area. Bueng Takreng is one of a natural reservoir located in Phitsanulok Province in Lower Yom River Basin. The potential capacity used is 14.0 million m3. The area around Bueng Takreng is the important wetland area. The water flow network in Bueng Takreng area consists of 5 small canals and 3 more small reservoirs, excluding Bueng Takreng. The maximum water level in this area is between September to October and the surrounded agricultural areas will be flooded and destroyed. However, severe drought occurs within 3-4 months after flood. Therefore, this study aims to propose the alternatives for the development of wetland management in Bueng Takreng area. The satellite map of 2011 Thailand flood is used to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. Then, the result of 4 parts; engineering, environment, social, and economics effects are considered. The alternative with better benefits to the residents is recommended.
Even before modern international law was developed, disputes relating to wetlands have arisen. For example, floods and droughts have always been caused disputes over the river. So far, many domestic policy measures and, when necessary, international measures against disputes have been taken up. This paper focuses on three points: Firstly, what measures have been undertaken in domestic policy, especially in Japan, in order to settle water conflict. Secondly, how the Ramsar Convention, one of the international treaties conserving wetland, tackles with the floods and droughts disputes in recent years. Thirdly, how evolutionary interpretation of bilateral and multilateral treaties relating to the conservation of wetland works in the settlement of such disputes. As a whole, it considers how the guidelines that have been adopted under the Ramsar Convention works for effective implementation of the Convention.
Sabah Wetlands Conservation Society (SWCS) is a non-governmental organization initiating in promoting wetlands conservation and awareness implemented through Kota Kinabalu Wetlands (KKW) as a model wetlands centre in Sabah. The SWCS management committee consists of elected members and ex-officio from relevant government agencies and WWF-Malaysia. Since 2010, SWCS also in collaboration with Sabah Forestry Department aim to conserve more degraded mangrove area around Sabah. KKW is a 24 hectares of mangrove area located within 2km north-east of Kota Kinabalu city. Due to the accessibility and its location within the urban area of Kota Kinabalu city, the conservation efforts to this natural ecosystem creates opportunities and pose a different challenges compared with remote areas. KKW was nominated as a Ramsar Site in 2013 and is currently pursuing Ramsar status as Wetlands of International Importance. This paper describes the crucial timeline of KKW, the introduction of SWCS management, efforts for biodiversity conservation and mangrove restoration, awareness activity through environmental education and voluntary programme as well as the achievements and challenges encountered over the past 20 years.