We have developed a new SNP typing method, reducing the experiment time by simplifying the conventional DNA extraction and purification process. Furthermore, the risk of human error, such as sample contamination was reduced, and significant cost reduction was achieved. We aim to utilize genotyping of alcohol metabolism-related genes in health education, preventing drinking accidents for university freshmen, as well as promoting appropriate drinking habits in the community. By identifying genotypes for genes related to drug metabolisms, personalized medicine will be achieved.
We reviewed systematic reviews (SRs) subjected for breast cancer patients who used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); that is, (1) which CAM was used, (2) how much evidence was contained. Thirty-four SRs met a set of criteria. Among interventions, yoga (9), acupuncture (6), and herbal medicines (5) were mainly used. Evaluation of quality of SRs using AMSTAR revealed that 9 out of 34 reviews were of high quality and 3 reviews were deemed to be of low quality.
The pharmacist needs to understand the characteristics of each drug and work on optimizing prescriptions, such as considering dosage and usage schedules to avoid various risks and problems. In this study, multidisciplinary clinical team meetings where pharmacists can effectively share information on the current status of benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use and their prescription recommendations with other clinical team members can lead to reduced BZRA dosages. Therefore, this study will be a guide to the intervention of Japanese pharmacists.
In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, medical supply vehicles (mobile pharmacies) were dispatched from Oita, Wakayama, and Hiroshima and contributed to medical treatment in the disaster area. In this qualitative research, authors conducted a semi-structured interview of 21 pharmacists. The modified grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis to generate 36 concepts and 13 categories. The support pharmacists maintained mobile pharmacies as a method for cooperation among multiple occupations, and talked about further collaboration of mobile pharmacies.
The combination of dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin with rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) is used for treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication of treatment with myelo-suppressive chemotherapy, therefore, preventing FN is important for successful treatment. The authors compared the efficacy of pegfilgrastim with that of filgrastim in patients receiving DA-EPOCH-R and showed that pegfilgrastim seems to be better than filgrastim for the primary prophylaxis, maintaining chemotherapy dosage, and reducing hospital duration.
The Science Council of Japan issued “The report: Promotion of social contributions of Research on Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences” on September 29, 2017. Research on clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences is a core research area of the 4-year doctoral course. In this symposium, several representatives from various academic societies and one research institution which have important functions for academic interchanges, will give presentations on issues and initiatives for promoting research on clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences.
To clarify the volume of water required to paste pediatric powders, we herein established a standard for the powder paste state by measuring yield values when water was added to powders. The yield value to achieve a paste state was estimated approximately 1,000 dyne/cm2 from the spreadability using a spread meter. The optimum volume of water estimated from this yield value for the amount of powder may be applied to the mixture of each pediatric power for dosage/body weight.
To clarify the associated factors for negative response to sumatriptan nasal spray (NS) in patients with cluster headache, we investigated the involvement of clinical information before commencing NS treatment. The efficacy of NS was 77.3% (n = 17) for these 22 patients. Three factors for negative response to NS, "young age of onset ", "psychiatric disorder", and "the headache is not in the orbit," were found. Therefore, these factors are considered to be useful for predicting therapy before applying NS.
We showed that a naturally occurring macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) derivative, riccardin C (RC) and some synthetic derivatives, exhibits antibacterial activity towards MRSA, with a potency comparable to that of the clinically used drug vancomycin. The SAR results indicated that the number and positions of the phenolic hydroxyl groups are primary determinants of the anti-MRSA activity. Numerous biological studies indicated that the macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) derivatives directly damages the gram-positive bacterial membrane, resulting in increased permeability.
Adhesive properties of 38 transdermal patches of ten different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were measured using unified methods. The adhesive properties were quite different among the patches, even for the same API, dose, and size. In the case of generic products for which the bioequivalence to a brand-name product is assured, the variation in the adhesive properties can extend the range of choices for patients. This study will help medical experts to notice the differences in adhesive properties of transdermal patches.
Similar-appearing PTP sheets (a.k.a. blister packs) that contain different medicines may result in incorrect medication due to confusion errors. To identify the factors that may lead to such errors, the authors conducted a questionnaire survey for pharmacists. Factors related to color (sheet, tablet/capsule, print) were most frequently selected as influencing the perceived similarity. The questionnaire results also indicate that patients themselves can confuse similar PTP sheets. Further quantitative studies are looked forward to clarify the key factors causing confusion errors.
The current study aimed to examine the outcomes of pharmacists’ involvement in special nursing homes. We analyzed 58 cases involving regular visits by community pharmacists. Pharmaceutical consultation following medication use accounted for 60.3% of pharmacists’ involvement with residents. The outcomes of these consultations included improvements in prescription content; the identification and prevention of adverse drug events; improvement in ADL. The findings indicated that regular visits by pharmacists to facilities for elderly people and communicate with care professionals improved pharmacotherapy outcomes.
This study investigated pediatric characteristics such as literacy ability and finger function in Japanese subjects and examined the usefulness of child-resistant (CR) packaging technologies. The authors indicated that the CR packaging styles that rely on literacy, the ability to use tools, and the ability to perform complex operations are only applicable to children of a certain age. These results may help to adopt CR packaging for Japanese children, and may be reduce accidental drug ingestion by children in Japan.
Non-alcoholic beverages with < 0.00% alcohol are on sale for adults as substitutes for alcoholic beverages, but it is unclear whether they could be a risk factor in drinking and smoking in childhood/adolescence. The authors indicated that 21.9 % of pupils in elementary school have drunk non-alcoholic beverages related with family drinking, and that non-alcoholic beverage intake is related to drinking and smoking. They also will introduce drug abuse prevention education among childhood/adolescents based on this survey.
Intrinsic 5-HT synthesized within the mammary epithelium has an important physiological role in milk volume homeostasis. When the mammary gland becomes filled with milk, 5-HT provides a negative feedback signal that suppresses further milk synthesis in the mammary epithelium. Our research, using MCF-12A cells, shows that the expression of b-casein, a differentiation marker, is suppressed via 5-HT-mediated inhibition of STAT5. Additionally, our results show that reduced b-casein expression in the cells is associated with 5-HT7 receptor and PTP1B activation.
The modification of polyethylene glycol (PEG), i.e. PEGylation is commonly used approach for increasing stability of drug delivery systems (DDSs), but results in loss of activity simultaneously. This article describes the trade-off relationship between activity and stability as PEG dilemma and strategies to overcome PEG dilemma. The authors developed a cleavable PEG lipid in response to tumor microenvironment, a pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide, and pH-sensitive cationic lipids in response to endosome/lysosome, which balanced activity and stability of DDSs and exerted therapeutic effect of nucleic acid cargos.
The exposure to aldehydes via indoor air is a matter of concern. Since there are no certified reference materials for aldehyde derivatives, the quantified values are not sufficiently reliable. In this study, the authors showed the actual content and purity of commercially available aldehyde derivatives using 1H-qNMR. Because it is greatly important for the quality control of reagents to secure the accuracy of analytical data, the qNMR analysis works as a bridge of International System of Units traceability.
Previous reports suggested that sharing outpatient information during chemotherapy is very important for managing pharmaceutical usage between community pharmacies and hospitals. We herein examined using a questionnaire survey whether pharmaceutical management for outpatient chemotherapy is desired by community and hospital pharmacists. In conclusion, as there may be differences in opinion between community and hospital pharmacists, mutual preliminary communication is important for successful outpatient chemotherapy.
In this study, we prepared 4 assistive devices (A-D) for Insulin Pen to improve the “ease of holding” and “ease of pushing” and compared their usability with that of a device provided by the pharmaceutical company (S). Fifty-five healthy volunteers in their 20s performed the self-injection maneuver using all 5 assistive devices and ranked them regarding above 3 items. In all evaluation items, C was ranked first by the largest number of subjects. Moreover, the 4 assistive devices prepared in this study were rated to be equal to or higher than S.
study investigated the sex differences of the inflammatory mediator level at
the time of itch onset in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD).
CVD-associated itching was observed in both men and women. In this study, itching was related to increased
tryptase in women and increased adrenocorticotropic hormone and β-endorphin in
men. Our findings could be helpful in the treatment of patients with CVD.