Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vesicles and their size is approximately 100 nm in diameter. They are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and secreted from almost all of cells. Exosomes are generated within the endocytic system as ILV (intraluminal membrane vesicle) and secreted during the fusion of MVB (multivesicular body) with the cell membrane. Recently it has been reported that exosomes modulate cell-cell communication contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by molecules including exosomes. Moreover, exosomes released from cancer cells are involved in cancer progression. Thus, data regarding the role of the exosomes in malignant cancer will lead to development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods.
Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that emerge during the developmental period. A significant barrier that impedes the social adaptation of individuals with these disorders is the exhibition of problem behaviors, such as self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behaviors. In recent years, these problem behaviors have been collectively referred to as “challenging behavior,” in accordance with the contention that they result from an interaction between the individual and his or her social environment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions that adopt the functional approach to treating challenging behavior are increasing. However, in order to effectively implement such interventions in educational settings and welfare facilities, it is essential to develop staff training programs and usable psychometric assessments. Accordingly, a brief overview of research studies on challenging behavior that have been conducted in Japan, as well as the various support systems that are available to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior, are presented in this article. The discussion makes it apparent that, in order to improve treatment systems in Japan that are aimed at addressing challenging behavior, it is necessary to establish not only better staff training programs, but also reliable and valid assessments measuring challenging behavior that can be readily used by teachers and parents. On the basis of this discussion, it is proposed that technological advancements must be applied to psychosocial approaches in the study of problem behaviors, in order to develop assessment system using software applications and automatic measurement system of target behaviors using sensing technology.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable type of B-cell lymphoma. It is typically composed of small-to-medium-sized cleaved lymphoid cells with cyclin D1 protein expression due to the chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32). Even with the development of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody drug, the long-term outcome of patients with MCL has not improved. Recently, new agents have been used in clinical settings, and the outcome of patients with MCL is expected to improve. The treatment of MCL may be at a turning point from intensive chemotherapy to chemotherapy-free treatment. In this study, a recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of MCL is reviewed.
Nursing competency includes core abilities that are required for fulfilling one’s role as a nurse. Therefore, it is important to clearly define nursing competency to establish a foundation for nursing education curriculum. However, while the concepts surrounding nursing competency are important for improving nursing quality, they are still not yet completely developed. Thus, challenges remain in establishing definitions and structures for nursing competency, competency levels necessary for nursing professionals, training methods and so on. In the present study, we reviewed the research on definitions and attributes of nursing competency in Japan as well as competency structure, its elements and evaluation. Furthermore, we investigated training methods to teach nursing competency.
Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling disorder, which commonly emerges in adolescence and young adulthood. While pharmacological treatment with currently available second-generation antipsychotics exerts beneficial effects on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, they have little effect on negative symptoms or cognitive deficits. Because these two types of symptoms are enduring, and negatively impact social functioning throughout the course of the illness, there is an urgent requirement to develop new effective therapeutic approaches to manage them. Negative symptoms have proven difficult to assess accurately because of their complexity, even with commonly used clinical rating scales such as the Scales for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). In this context, new “next-generation” assessment tools have recently been developed, which include items representing the five domains encompassed by the two established clusters of negative symptoms (diminished expression and avolition), and enable the detection of changes in severity. Despite various therapeutic approaches to alleviating negative symptoms, there are currently no established methods available for clinical practice. Cognitive deficits are also a core feature in the majority of people with schizophrenia, with impaired performance observed across many cognitive domains, including verbal memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. Such cognitive deficits are likely associated with either reduced or inefficient function of related distributed neural networks. Psychosocial treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia seem promising given the beneficial effects of cognitive remediation therapy on such impairments, as well as on social functioning, as substantiated in several meta-analytic studies with modest effect sizes. Furthermore, using functional neuroimaging techniques, the size of these therapy-induced beneficial changes in neurocognitive performance has been demonstrated to be correlated with the degree of the changes in brain activation during performing some cognitive tasks in the prefrontal and temporal cortices. This suggests neurobiological effects are exerted by psychosocial cognitive remediation treatments.
Shin-ichi Taniguchi, Daeho Park, Kazuoki Inoue, Toshihiro Hamada
One of the most critical social problems in Japan is the remarkable increase in the aging population. Elderly patients with a variety of complications and issues other than biomedical problems such as dementia and life support with nursing care have been also increasing. Ever since the Japanese economy started to decline after the economic bubble burst of 1991 and the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy in 2008, how we can resolve health problems of the elderly at a lower cost has become one of our most challenging social issues. On the other hand, the appropriate supply of medical and welfare resources is also a fundamental problem. The disparity of physician distribution leads to a marked lack of medical services especially in remote and rural areas of Japan. The government has been attempting to recruit physicians into rural areas through a regional quota system. Based on this background, the medical field pays a great amount of attention to community-based family medicine (CBFM). CBFM requires basic knowledge of community health and family medicine. The main people involved in CBFM are expected to be a new type of general practitioner that cares for residents in targeted communities. To improve the performance of CBFM doctors, we need to establish a better CBFM education system and assess it appropriately when needed. Here, we review the background of CBFM development and propose an effective education system.
In congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic nervous system is hyperactive. This article reviews current understandings about central and peripheral neural mechanisms underlying sympathetic hyperactivation in this pathological condition. During the development of CHF, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activities and angiotensin II–mediated oxidative stress become enhanced. Here, on the basis of findings obtained from animal studies, it is examined how RAS overactivation and oxidative stress in central and peripheral nervous systems of CHF mediate sympathetic hyperactivation. Mechanisms by which exercise training in CHF ameliorates RAS overactivation, oxidative stress and sympathetic hyperactivation are also investigated.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a socioeconomic burden in Japan as well as other developed countries. Diuretics are widely used to attenuate symptoms and signs of congestion in both heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, although their effects on long-term prognosis of both phenotypes of heart failure have not been demonstrated because of an ethical difficulty in designing a randomized and prospective clinical trial. Guidelines do not provide any guidance on therapy choice, and physicians blindly choose furosemide among loop diuretics in current clinical settings. However, several clinical studies have suggested that the effects of loop diuretics are not consistent, and that furosemide is not necessarily preferable as compared with other loop diuretics. We should pay attention to the choice of loop diuretics. Regarding the improvement of long-term prognosis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and β-blocker are proven effective for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. However, none of these drugs have improved prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in clinical trials. Observational studies and subanalysis of clinical trials suggest the benefits of these drugs in this phenotype of heart failure. All of clinical trials and observational studies present facts to us, and let us recognize that “one size fits all approach” may be a cause for a lack of evidence about the therapeutic strategy of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction until now. We have to make efforts to clarify characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction to whom the administration of each drug provides benefits or do not.