Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Online ISSN : 1884-2836
Print ISSN : 1344-6304
ISSN-L : 1344-6304
Current issue
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
Original Articles
Original Article
  • Mengke Yang, Yang Yang, Aiping Zhang, Mingyue Ni, Manman Liang, Bin Qu ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 121-128
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease. Previous studies have primarily focused on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with SFTS, whereas pancreatic injury has received little attention. This study investigated the effects of pancreatic injury on the prognosis of patients with SFTS. A total of 156 patients diagnosed with SFTS between April 2016 and April 2022 were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pancreatic injury (odds ratio [OR] = 3.754, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.361–79.036, P = 0.024) and neurological symptoms (OR = 18.648, 95% CI: 4.921–70.668, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that serum pancreatic enzymes were predictive of progression to death in patients with SFTS. The area under the curve (AUC) for amylase was 0.711, with an optimal cutoff value of 95.5 U/L, sensitivity of 96.4%, and specificity of 35.9%. Lipase had an AUC of 0.754, an optimal cutoff value of 354.75 U/L, sensitivity of 75%, and specificity of 67.2%. Thus, pancreatic injury was associated with a poor prognosis of SFTS and can be used as an important reference for SFTS determination and prognostic assessment.

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  • Halef Okan Doğan, Mahir Budak, Kübra Doğan, Gözde Ertürk Zararsız, Ser ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 129-136
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This study aimed to examine the leukotriene metabolism during COVID-19. In total, 180 participants were included in this study, of which 60 were healthy controls, 60 required intensive care units (ICU), and 60 did not require intensive care (non-ICU). The serum levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO activating protein (ALOX5AP), and cysteinyl leukotriene (CYSLT) were measured, and the mRNA expression levels of 5-LO, ALOX5AP, and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) were investigated. Compared with the control group, both the non-ICU and ICU groups had lower levels of 5-LO and mRNA expression. ICU patients had lower levels of 5-LO and mRNA expression than non-ICU patients. CYSLTR1 mRNA expression was highest in the ICU group, followed by the non-ICU group, and healthy controls had the lowest mRNA expression levels. CYSLT levels were higher in the control group than in the non-ICU and ICU groups. CYSLTR1 expression was higher in patients than in controls; therefore, selective leukotriene receptor blockers can be used as treatment options. CYSLTR1 expression was higher in the ICU group than in the non-ICU group. Furthermore, CYSLTR1 mRNA expression may be a promising biomarker of COVID-19 severity.
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  • Kazuya Shirato, Reiko Suwa, Naganori Nao, Miyuki Kawase, Satoko Sugimo ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 137-143
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is genetically classified into two major subgroups, A and B, based on attachment glycoprotein (G protein) gene sequences. The A2 subgroup is further separated into three subdivisions, A2a, A2b (A2b1), and A2c (A2b2). Subgroup A2c viruses carrying 180- or 111-nucleotide duplications in the G gene (A2c 180nt-dup or A2c 111nt-dup ) have been reported in Japan and Spain. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the epidemiological kinetics of other respiratory viruses, including hMPV. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of hMPV isolates in Tokyo and Fukushima obtained from 2017 to 2022, i.e., before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroup A hMPV strains were detected from 2017 to 2019, and most cases were A2c 111nt-dup, suggesting ongoing transmission of this clade, consistent with global transmission dynamics. Subgroup B viruses, but not subgroup A viruses, were detected in 2022 after the COVID-19 peak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the subgroup B viruses were closely related to strains detected in Yokohama from 2013 to 2016, and strains detected in Fukushima in 2019, suggesting the reappearance of local endemic viruses in East Japan.

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  • Hoang Huy Le, An Van Nguyen, Luong Huy Vu, Vinh Thi Ha Nguyen, Hoa Quy ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 144-154
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This cross-sectional study investigated the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of gram-negative pathogens isolated from 4,789 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Of the collected specimens, 1,325 (27.7%) tested positive for gram-negative bacteria. Acinetobacter baumannii (38.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.7%), Escherichia coli (5.6%), and Klebsiella aerogenes (3.5%) were the most prevalent isolates. AMR analysis revealed high resistance rates (79.9%–100%) of A. baumannii isolates to multiple classes of antibiotics except amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and colistin. P. aeruginosa displayed low resistance to colistin (< 10%) but high resistance to other antibiotics. K. pneumoniae displayed high resistance rates of 90.0%–100.0% to most penicillins, whereas resistance rates were notably lower for colistin (7.1%) and amikacin (16.7%). K. aerogenes exhibited high resistance to various antibiotics and sensitivity to amikacin (95.1%), ampicillin (100.0%), and colistin (100.0%). E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (96.9%) and maximum sensitivity to several antibiotics. Our study identified significant AMR trends and highlighted the prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains (93.6% for K. aerogenes and 69.1%–92.4% for other isolates). These findings emphasize the urgent need for appropriate antibiotic management practices to combat AMR in gram-negative pathogens associated with LRTIs.

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  • Hirokazu Adachi, Hiroko Minagawa, Emi Hirose, Noriko Nakamura, Hitomi ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 155-160
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3, human respirovirus 3) is the second most frequently detected virus in lower respiratory tract infections in children after human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). HPIV-3, similar to related respiratory viruses such as HRSV and influenza virus, may cause encephalopathy; however, the relevance of HPIV-3 as a pathogenic factor in encephalopathy is unknown. We attempted to detect HPIV-1, HPIV-2, HPIV-3, HPIV-4, HRSV, and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in 136 patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy or suspected encephalitis/encephalopathy during a 6-year period from 2014 to 2019. HPIV-3 was detected in 6 patients, followed by HRSV in 3 patients. The HPIV-3 strains detected were closely related to those detected in a patient with respiratory disease during the same period. Although HPIV-3 is less widely recognized than HRSV as a triggering virus of encephalopathy, our results suggest that HPIV-3 is as important as HRSV. Surveillance of the causative viruses of encephalopathy, including HPIV-3, would help clarify the causes of encephalopathy in Japan, as the cause is currently reported in less than half of cases in Japan.

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  • Burcu Bayyurt, Sevgi Baltacı, Nil Özbilüm Şahin, Serdal Arslan, Mehmet ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 161-168
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that is still affecting people and has caused many deaths. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the binding of disease agents to the host cell, disease susceptibility and severity, and host disease resistance. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of TLR7 (C.4-151 A/G), TLR9 (T-1486C and G2848A), and TLR10 (720A/C and 992T/A) single nucleotide polymorphisms in 150 cases with COVID-19 and 171 control samples. We also examined whether TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10 were related to COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, we analyzed the association between COVID-19 and some clinical parameters. Polymerase chain reaction based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms performed for the TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10 single nucleotide polymorphisms. TLR7 C.4-151 A/G G allele and GG genotype; TLR9 T-1486C C allele and TC, CC genotypes; and TLR10 720A/C C allele; TLR10 992T/A A allele and AA genotype frequencies were statistically significant in cases with COVID-19 compared with controls (P < 0.05*). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10 allele and genotype frequencies between the severity groups (P < 0.05*). Our findings suggest that TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10 polymorphisms may be crucial for the clinical course and susceptibility to infection.

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Short Communications
Short Communication
  • Yusuke Inoue, Yoshihiro Kaku, Michiko Harada, Keita Ishijima, Yudai Ku ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 169-173
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Some lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus (RABV), cause lethal neurological symptoms in humans. However, the efficacy of commercial vaccines has only been evaluated against RABV. To assess cross-reactivity among lyssaviruses, including RABV, sera from rabbits inoculated with human and animal RABV vaccines and polyclonal antibodies from rabbits immunized with expression plasmids of the glycoproteins of all 18 lyssaviruses were prepared, and cross-reactivity was evaluated via virus-neutralization tests using Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV), European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1), Mokola lyssavirus (MOKV), Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), and RABV. The sera from rabbits inoculated with RABV vaccines showed cross-reactivity with EBLV-1 and DUVV, both belonging to phylogroup I. However, reactivity with MOKV and LBV in phylogroup II was notably limited or below the detection level. Next, we compared the cross-reactivity of the polyclonal antibodies against all lyssavirus glycoproteins. Polyclonal antibodies had high virus-neutralization titers against the same phylogroup but not different phylogroups. Our findings indicate that a new vaccine should be developed for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis against lyssaviral infections.

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  • Ryo Matsumura, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kyo Itoyama, Haruhiko Isawa
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 174-177
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In 2010, Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was discovered in ticks in China and has been shown to be distributed in several regions worldwide. Recently, cases of JMTV infection in humans have been reported in China and Kosovo, and have attracted much attention as an emerging tick-borne disease. In this study, we detected the JMTV genome in Amblyomma testudinarium ticks collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, during tick-borne virus surveillance conducted in the Kanto Region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new JMTV strain was closely related to previous strains detected in Japan. This suggests that JMTV may have been maintained during an independent natural transmission cycle in Japan. In addition, unlike other countries and regions, all JMTV strains in Japan were detected only in A. testudinarium ticks, suggesting that this tick species is the primary JMTV vector in Japan. This is the first report of JMTV in the Kanto Region. Further studies are required to elucidate the potential risk of infection with this tick-borne virus in Japan. In particular, the prevalence of JMTV in wild animals should be examined to clarify its geographical distribution, host range, and transmission cycle.

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  • Yoshitaka Kimura, Nami Hatayama, Yoshinori Sato, Satoshi Nishida, Yusu ...
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 178-181
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an important pathogen that causes nosocomial infections and is resistant to almost all antibiotics, including carbapenems. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin active against a broad spectrum of gram-negative bacteria. However, the susceptibility of MDRAB to cefiderocol has not yet been reported in Japan. In this study, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics including cefiderocol against MDRAB clinical isolates collected during a nosocomial outbreak between 2009 and 2010 at the Teikyo University Hospital in Japan. We found that all 10 MDRAB clinical isolates tested were susceptible to cefiderocol, with an MIC range of 0.12 to 1 μg/mL. All the isolates also exhibited resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam and an intermediate resistance to colistin, whereas nine of them were susceptible to tigecycline. DNA sequencing revealed that all strains harbored an OXA-51-like carbapenemase, a major cause of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in Japan. In conclusion, this study showed that the cefiderocol susceptibility of MDRAB clinical isolates in Japan was equivalent to that to colistin or tigecycline, and thus cefiderocol is a potential treatment option for MDRAB infections.

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  • Mian Wei, Toni Li, Siyuan Liu, Yushu Wang, Carolyn Tran, Guangyu Ao
    2024 Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 182-186
    Published: May 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 23, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Nafamostat mesylate, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has been shown to have antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and anticoagulant properties that may be beneficial in the treatment of COVID-19. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of nafamostat mesylate for the treatment of COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, medRxiv, and bioRxiv were searched up to July 2023 for studies comparing the outcomes of nafamostat mesylate treatment and no nafamostat mesylate treatment in patients with COVID-19. Mortality, disease progression, and adverse events were analyzed. Six studies involving 16,195 patients were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.20–3.75, P = 0.86) or disease progression (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 0.31–24.68, P = 0.36) between groups. However, nafamostat mesylate was associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia (OR: 7.15, 95% CI: 2.66–19.24, P < 0.0001). Nafamostat mesylate did not improve mortality or morbidity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The risk of hyperkalemia is a serious concern that requires monitoring and preventive measures. Further research in different COVID-19 populations is required.

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