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  • 千葉 茂樹, 佐藤 公
    地球科学
    2007年 61 巻 3 号 175-177
    発行日: 2007/05/25
    公開日: 2017/05/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 松崎 照明
    日本建築学会計画系論文報告集
    1991年 419 巻 89-98
    発行日: 1991/01/30
    公開日: 2017/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper 1 intend to clarify all of the styles and the characteristics of "Kakezukuri" in the Ancient and the Middle ages in Japan. And this paper consists of the following chapters. I "Kakezukuri" has the rock which is in the principal hall(naijin), and believed in ; From the early to the middle of Heian period. II "Kakezukuri" is built in the cave and on the big rock ; From the late of Heian to the Middle ages. III The other cases ; From the end of Heian to the Middle ages. I will present the structure, which is under the floor of "Kakezukuri" in the other part of this series.
  • 大野 雲外
    人類學雜誌
    1911年 27 巻 7 号 389-395
    発行日: 1911/10/10
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐野 賢治
    民族學研究
    1976年 41 巻 3 号 235-258
    発行日: 1976/12/30
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The eel is an interesting creature from the standpoint of biology, that is, its migration, its geographical distribution, its transformation of sex and so on. And because of its mysterious life, many legends and beliefs concerning the eel also have been originated and transmitted all over the world since ancient times. What interests the author is the ethnographic information that some ethnic groups don,t eat eels at all in Formosa, Micronesia, the Philippines and so on, with relation to totem ,animal and ancestor worship. Although we can hear a lot of folklore concerning eels in Japan, a non-eel-diet taboo is almost always told with Buddhist Kokuzo-Belief. The folk-explanation is that an eel is the messenger or the favorite food of Kokuzo-Budhisattva (akasa-garbha) and therefore should not eat it. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the development of an interrelationship between eels and Kokuzo-Budhisatta and to analyse several aspects of a non-eel-diet taboo in the historical ,context. Japanese folktales around the eel are classified according to the following items : (a) An eel as the messenger of a Kami (god) or of Buddha. The deities usually represented being that of Suijin (a water deity) , Mishimamyojin (三島明神) , Konpiragongen (金比羅宮) or Kokuzo-Bodhisattva. (b) An eel which transforms itself into a man, usually a monk. This eel usually represents the guardian spirit of a pond or river. (c) A one-eyed eel. These always possess magical powers. (d) An unusual or mutated eel and its activities. (i. e. a red, yellow or white eel an eel having large ears.) (e) The origin of a place name after an eel ; i. e., eel-mound, eel-wamp, eel-abyss, eel-paddy, etc. An overview of these folk tales leads to the following concept : People in early times thought the eel was a water deity itself, or the messenger of a water deity who was the guardian spirit of a pond, marsh, river, deep or lake. The eel inspired apprehension among these primitive folk due to its strange appearance and activities. Also in Japan, there is some evidence which indicates that the eel may be a mythical ancestor. The belief that spiritual creatures in water bodies may change into a one-eyed eel, which indicates the tenement of a god, is an idea promulgated by the late Kunio Yanagita. In another legend, the eel appears in a deluge in which the eel is transformed into a monk who warns the populace of approaching disaster and consequently saves them from catastro-phe. Kokuzo-Bodhisattva beliefs have included the mitigation or avoidance of disaster since the Nara Period. One particular Kokuzo sutra, which prevailed widely among temples practicing Kokuzo beliefs in Japan, portrays Kokuzo-Bodhisattva as an itinerant priest who displays his ability to avert disaster more effectively than any other Bodhisattva. Shingon Sect priests (当山派修験) , as proponents of this Kokuzo belief, have connected this belief with that of the eel and its appearance during innundation. The aforementioned information is the product of research data obtained from Tokurenji Temple (徳蓮寺) in Mie Prefecture. Tokurenji Temple belongs to the Shingon Sect and has tradition that the itinerant Kobodaishi (a founder of the Shingon Sect) stayed at this temple at some point in its early history. Many "Ema" (small wooden tablets with an optative phrase and a suitable picture) are dedicated to this temple and most of them are pictures drawn with a catfish and an eel. we can guess that the catfish was added at a later date because of the synonimity of its name and the name of a skin disease "namazu" and the folk-connection of the catfish to the cure of the disease.
  • 川戸 貴史
    史学雑誌
    2014年 123 巻 4 号 511-544
    発行日: 2014/04/20
    公開日: 2017/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article examines the peculiar characteristics of cadasters conducted during the Toyotomi Hideyoshi regime by focusing on why the currency described as "eirakusen" 永楽銭 (originally denoting copper coins minted during the Ming Dynasty's Yongle 永楽 era) was adopted in 1590 as the standard for taxation (kandaka 貫高) in Aizu, which was part of the territory under the feudal lords of Mutsu and Dewa Provinces chastised by Hideyoshi in the Ou Shioki 奥羽仕置 of 1590. The reason for basing land taxes on "eirakusen" instead of rice output (kokudaka 石高) in the Aizu fief was because 1) the kandaka system was already functioning in Aizu prior to the Shioki and 2) it was deemed necessary to secure and occupy the territory as quickly as possible. Upon his arrival in Aizu, Gamo Ujisato, to whom Hideyoshi had granted the fief under the Shioki's provisions, began collecting tribute. Although the research to date purports that half of the tribute was rendered in rice and the other in money, the author argues that the process was not exactly that straight forward; for payment in money was the rule, and according to the tax ledgers, the denomination was "eirakusen". Based on this conclusion the author turns to the question of what sort of currency "eirakusen" actually was. After comparing the "eirakusen" actually levied as tribute with the value of gold during the time in question, the author finds that "eirakusen" was worth about the same as the normal currency of the day, leading him to conclude that in this case "eirakusen" did not denote Ming Yongle era Chinese coins and had no special value. Noting the fact that in the feudal territory of the Gohojo Clan immediately before its downfall that the value of Ming Yongle era coins was regarded as more valuable than other coins, the Toyotomi regime mistakenly assumed that this was true throughout Mutsu and Dewa, and accordingly established that currency, which it called "eirakusen", as the means of tribute payment in the provisions of the Shioki. Since Ming Yongle era coins were in fact not circulating in the region, the "eirakusen" unit of tribute set in Aizu did not exist in form, but only as entries on the pages of tax ledgers. Consequently, the "eirakusen" ledger entries had to be converted into circulating currency and rice at fixed rates of exchange before tribute could be collected. Although land policy in territories occupied by the Toyotomi regime often seems to have flexibly responded to what was actually happening on the ground, there were cases in which the process of preparing its system of military vassalage would become so hectic that even local monetary currency circulation practices were not sufficiently understood.
  • 千葉 茂樹, 佐藤 公
    地球科学
    2007年 61 巻 3 号 203-208
    発行日: 2007/05/25
    公開日: 2017/05/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The detailed records of the eruption of Bandai volcano on July 15^<th> in 1888 are kept in Sekiya and Kikuchi (1890). The photos taken immediately after the eruption were by Iwata Zenbei, Endo Rikurou and W.K.Burton et al. Some of them by Endo have been well known for many years but the others began to be discovered around 1988, just 100 years after its eruption Iwata's photos were discovered in 1987, then photos owned at the Imperial House hold Agency ("Meiji no Nihon" by Takebe and Nakamura 2000) were found in 2000, and photos possessed at the National Science Museum, Tokyo were discovered in 2001. "Meiji no Nihon" has the list of photos owned at the IHA and notes that the IHA had 21 photos of Bandai's eruption in 1888. Only 9 photos of them however are shown in the book. Therefore, all the 21 photos, 10 of which are unlisted, are recopied and carried in the thesis of ours with the permission of the IHA. This thesis has shown the photos of the eruption of Bandai volcano in 1888, including the unlisted photos. Those photos have been analyzed and considered the places, directions and present scenery of them. On top of that, a suffered house in one of the recorded photos is assured to exist today and its scenes of the past and present are compared and examined.
  • 小林 崇仁
    智山学報
    2000年 49 巻 127-143
    発行日: 2000/03/31
    公開日: 2017/08/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 連歌俳諧研究
    1960年 1960 巻 20 号 131-151
    発行日: 1960/10/15
    公開日: 2010/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高橋 泉
    仙台白百合女子大学紀要
    2000年 4 巻 47-56
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2018/07/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • ―信濃川流域の水害環境を中心として―
    丸山 岩三
    水利科学
    1998年 42 巻 4 号 82-107
    発行日: 1998/10/01
    公開日: 2019/02/21
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 矢数 道明
    日本東洋医学雑誌
    1991年 42 巻 2 号 189-203
    発行日: 1991/10/20
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
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