マキー 智子 (1)
大橋 正夫 (1)
1956 年 (1)
2012 年 (1)
公立朝鮮人学校の開設 : 戦後在日朝鮮人教育に対する公費支出の一様態
2012年 55 巻 45-57
This paper examines the process of the establishment of municipal Korean schools in Japan. These Korean schools were started in 1949 in cities with a significant resident Korean population. The study of the establishment of municipal Korean schools provides a better understanding of the characteristics of public education in postwar Japan, and of Korean children's educational experiences. This paper not only reveals the conditions of the establishment of municipal Korean schools (school name, location, period of existence), it also shows the legal framework that made it possible to establish these schools. In particular, this paper considers Ministry of Education policies, the awareness of GHQ, and countermeasures taken by several local governments. In 1948, the Ministry of Education declared that all school age Korean children must attend schools prescribed by Article 1 of the School Education Law. Just after that, in 1949, the Ministry of Education closed down almost all Korean educational facilities, including schools approved by Article 1. As a result of this, municipal schools had to accept Korean students. To satisfy this influx of Korean students, some local governments requested permission to use the closed schools' premises as branch schools. In response to their request, the Ministry of Education issued a memorandum permitting the establishment of municipal branch schools as an exception to the rule. Under this memorandum, some local governments, for various reasons, established municipal Korean schools between 1949 and 1950.
1956年 27 巻 1 号 36-45
Many studies of interpersonal relation have been published since Moreno's pioneer research. It may be said that the aim of those studies has, in the main, consisted in searching for the reasons why people choose such and such persons as their co-workers or friends. For that purpose they were asked to explain the reasons for their choice. Data thus obtained have told us that several personal conditions, or “traits, ” of the person to be chosen exert some influence upon people's choice behavior.
What we can see in such descriptive data is, however, limited to the knowledge of very superficial aspect of the process ot developing interpersonal relation. The process is too complicated to be understood by such a static approach. The only way to comprehend this process adequately, we believe, will be found in analysing choice behavior psychologically. And a clue for it is, we think, the interpersonal perception in relation to choice behavior. This paper is a report of parts of investigations designed to search for the relationship between choice behavior and interpersonal perception from this point of view. Three kinds of test were given to pupils of nine classrooms from sixth to nineth-grade ; (1) a near-sociometric test in the form of method of paired comparison the choice criterion of which is “Like-Dislike”, (2) a test in which they were asked to perceive their classmates' choice status in the forms of method of paired comparison and rating scale, and (3) a test in which they were asked to perceive other's feelings towards themselves in the form of rating scale. Results were as follows :
(1) There is a high correlation between subjegt's degree of liking a classmate of his and degree of the classmate's liking him he perceives. In addition to this correlation, a further relationship was found : the more the subject likes a classmate, the more he overestimates the classmate's good feeling towards himself.
(2) There is found a high correlation between subject's degree of liking a classmate and the classmate's choice status in the classmate's choice status in the classroom he perceives. Moreover, the more the subject likes a classmate, the more he overestimates the classmate's choice status.
(3) A classmate's choice status the subject perceives and the degree of the classmate's liking the subject he perceives are in a high correlation. Also in this case, the higher a classmate's perceived choice status is the more the subject over-estimates the classmate's good feeling towards himself.
These facts found may be interpreted in terms of (1) the consistency of people's attitudes in evaluating an object from several points of view (Heider's hypothesis), (2) a functional role of perception in action, and (3) the conformity of group members to the group standard. The three mutual relationships between choice behavior and interpersonal perceptions will play an important role in the process of human interaction. The exact functional or causal relationships between them, however, are left unsolved.