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  • ―用具の変遷との関連から(明治以降)―
    小林 義雄
    武道学研究
    1986年 19 巻 2 号 27-28
    発行日: 1986年
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山神 真一
    武道学研究
    1984年 16 巻 1 号 32-33
    発行日: 1984/01/31
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中村 民雄
    武道学研究
    1981年 14 巻 1 号 9-17
    発行日: 1981/10/30
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since the inauguration of the modern educational system, bujutsuka military artistsout of office demanded that bubo military arts be put in the regular curriculums. To this, Ministry of Education and scholars on physical education argued that budo military arts was inappropriate for regular curriculum. They pointed out that budo military arts could be dangerous and that it lacked the unity of instruction program and of teaching method. They admitted, however, that it could be given as an extra curricular activity to male students who were fifteen years of age or older. In order to change the attitude of Ministry of Education, bujutsuka military artists employed the following two strategies: (1) to try to obtain as many people's consent as possible in the Parliament, and, (2) to try to obtain as many teachers' consent as possible by presenting “the teaching method of budo military arts” based on the experimental studies. The present study deals with the latter.
    There were basically two problems to be solved on the part of bujutsuka military artists out of office so that they could obtain teachers' consent, and eventually budo military arts could be put in the regular curriculums. One is the dangerousness; “atemi (hit the vital point to make one unconscious)” in judo, and “men-dageki (hit the opponent on the forehead)” in kendo were considered to be particularly dangerous. The other is the lack of unity; each school had its own method and program.
    When Kendo and Judo were adopted in the regular curriculums in the middle schools in 1911 (the 44th year of Meiji Era), the Ministry of Education held a fiveweek lecture meeting at Tokyo Kato Shihan Gakko (Tokyo Higher Normal School)to guarantee the equality and unity of contents to be taught at school. The method was called “Dantai-Kyoju-Ho (a method to teach basic patterns of bujutsu military arts to a class all at once)” to solve the above-mentioned two problems at a time, This method later became popular and influential. The popularity and influence of the method was at its peak during the whole Taisho Era and the first ten years of Showa Era (1912-1935).
  • 長谷川 弘一
    武道学研究
    1989年 21 巻 3 号 41-48
    発行日: 1989/03/25
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    There is an old saying in Kendo that states: “First, the eyes; sencondly, the feet; thirdly, courage; and fourthly, strength. ”Thus, stance and footwork are the very fundamentals in Kendo. Since the standard of stance has been changed with time, it is difficult to give a definition of the correct stance.
    Therefore, the historical changes in length and width of the stance, especially in the chuudan basic position (Chuudan no Kamae) during Meiji and Taisho eras, have brought to a focus in the present paper.
    The results are as follows:
    1) The length of a step in natural walking, namely about twice of foot length, is taken as a standard of stance in Kenjyutsu from the end of Edo era to the beginning of Meiji era.
    2) In the latter half of Meiji era, a tendency toward a shorter stence is in evidence, because of setting a standard form of Kenjyutsu (Kenjyutsu-Kata) and movement of changes toward the both hands sword method in the army.
    3) The army adopted the both hands sword method in the fourth year of Taisho era. Then, the length of stance came shorter approximately to one and a half of foot length in police, army and school.
    4) As a result that both players stand face to face with their back straight, they are supposed to move forward and backward quickly both in offense and defense. And such a kind of techniques with quick motion came to be prevalent in Kendo.
  • 矢野 裕介
    体育学研究
    2014年 59 巻 2 号 625-637
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/12/20
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/10/13
    ジャーナル フリー
      This study examines the transformation of the do-waza (techniques for striking the opponent's torso) in kenjutsu motivated by a philosophy of physical education rooted in medical rationalism. This transformation was initiated with the goal of fostering balanced physical development. The study materials were do-waza-related descriptions in representative kenjutsu manuals published around 1900, and handed down from person to person. Through examination of do-waza in modern Japan, it was concluded that bujutsu-taisoho (martial art exercises) were introduced and endorsed by Unosuke Ozawa, Kenzo Nakajima, Tokuichiro Nakano, and others in their attempt to incorporate kenjutsu teaching materials into regular physical education in schools. This was the point when standard kenjutsu instruction techniques shifted from one-to-one to group-exercise instructions.
      Results obtained in this study can be summarized as follows:
      1.  The core contents of do-waza in representative kenjutsu textbooks published between 1884 and 1897 only describe methods for striking the migi-do (right do or right torso) but not the hidari-do (left do). Shingoro Negishi (1884) states that it is better to strike the migi-do in preference to the hidari-do, while Daijo Kameyama (1895) and Minoru Yoneoka (1897) state that only migi-do strikes are rationally acceptable from a technical perspective, whereas hidari-do strikes are strictly unacceptable.
      2.  Between the late 1890s and 1900s, Unosuke Ozawa, Kenzo Nakajima, and Tokuichiro Nakano developed the bujutsu-taisoho with the aim of implementing bujutsu (martial arts, i.e., kenjutsu) as part of the regular school curriculum. This became a key opportunity to shift kenjutsu instruction from one-on-one to group instruction. Simultaneously, the training came to present do-waza methods for striking both the migi-do and the hidari-do (Ozawa, 1897; Shizuoka Prefecture Teacher's School, 1902; Nakayama and Nakano, 1906).
      3.  The do-waza in the bujutsu-taisoho as proposed by Ozawa, Nakajima, and Nakano effectively gave hidari-do strikes, which had been previously rejected in the field of kenjutsu, equal standing with migi-do strikes, with the aim of achieving balanced physical development on both sides of the body. The motivation for this revised do-waza was a physical education philosophy founded upon principles of medical rationalism.
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