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  • 髙野 宏
    地理学評論 Series A
    2010年 83 巻 6 号 565-584
    発行日: 2010/11/01
    公開日: 2012/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    大田植の習俗は,民俗学と芸能史の立場から重要な習俗とみなされてきた.前者では,日本の古い田植の様式であり,日本人に固有の信仰を残しているとされた.後者では,その芸態が田楽史を明らかにする重要な手掛かりと考えられた.大田植に関する研究は,こうした学術的な関心に基づいて推進された.しかし,従来の研究では,同習俗の社会的基盤や地域社会に果たす意味・機能の問題には,ほとんど関心が払われなかった.本稿では,以上の問題意識に基づき,大正・昭和戦前期の広島県西城町八鳥の事例を取り上げ,大田植と地域社会との関係を考察した.その結果,①大田植の習俗は経営危機に陥った畜産農家の救済を目的とし,彼らと取引関係にある家畜商によって主催されたこと,②そこには畜産業の発達に伴う家畜商の社会的地位の向上,中核的農家の不在が関与していたこと,③牛小作と相まって,当地域での畜産業の構造・生産を安定化していたことが判明した.
  • 髙野 宏
    人文地理
    2007年 59 巻 5 号 381-401
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2018/01/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    The custom of ōtaue (rice-planting festival) in the Chūgoku Region has often been dealt with in Japanese folklore studies and historical studies on Japanese performing arts. In these studies, this custom has been treated as what remains of old-fashioned rice-planting in Japan or the preservation of a performance carried out before the establishment of dengaku. Research on ōtaue has been driven by such academic interests and many papers about it have been written. The point that most of these papers focused on was not the relationship between local community and ōtaue, but problems related to ōtaue itself, its performance or style of worshipping the gods. The nature of the community within which this custom was held, and its meaning and function in the inhabitants’ everyday lives, were seldom discussed.

    In this paper, building on an awareness of these issues, the author focuses on the case of ōtaue (‘ushikuyo’) which was held in Kawahigashi, Toyomatsu Village around 1935, and has analyzed the relationship between it and the local community. To put it concretely, he has tried to interpret religious and non-religious representations concerning the inhabitants’ everyday lives as measured against the background of their modes of livelihood, the social organization, and social structure of this area. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the meaning and function of ōtaue through such analysis. In other words, it is an attempt to describe this custom considering its connection with the local community.

    In Chapter 2, the ceremonial procedure of ōtaue and representations in it are introduced. The following five distinctive features are pointed out: (1) ōtaue was thought of as a memorial service for cattle; (2) the tanushi (the sponsor of ōtaue) paid its costs and provided his house for meetings; (3) the tanushi’s dignity was emphasized by participants’ speeches and actions; (4) the tanushi’s house was described as a point of contact between this world and the spiritual realm including the traveling routes of the gods; and (5) the ceremony included many elements of amusement or recreation.

    In Chapter 3, the mode of livelihood in Kawahigashi around 1935 is explained. In those days, inhabitants of this area got substantial income from the cultivation of cash crops (tobacco, konjaku) and cattle raising aimed at producing calves. Especially cattle raising was very important. Such common sayings as “ushi-no-sakidachi” (the ups and downs of farming households are caused by the results of cattle raising) reflect this importance. The characteristics of this livelihood were caused by an environment unsuitable for paddy cultivation in this area.

    In Chapter 4, the social organization and social structure of Kawahigashi around 1935 is analyzed. Through this analysis, the following two points become clear: (1) Kawahigashi consisted of four autonomous kin groups called myō, and (2) each myō was a stratified organization in which one head family (shinozuka) took the leadership. In addition, it is argued that the primacy of konjaku and cattle in this area maintained such a social structure.

    In Chapter 5, the distinctive features of ōtaue in Kawahigashi, which were pointed out in Chapter 2, are considered on the basis of the facts elucidated in Chapters 3 and 4. Through this consideration, the author draws conclusions concerning the meaning and function of this custom. For one thing, some important representations in the ceremony reflected the inhabitants’ everyday lives. For instance, its purpose as a memorial service for cattle was a reflection of their livelihood.

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

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