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  • -ミクロネシア・ポナペ島の事例分析-
    森岡 容子
    社会学評論
    1980年 30 巻 4 号 55-72,127
    発行日: 1980/03/31
    公開日: 2009/11/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿は、従来のアヴォイダンスの定義を拡大し、特定の社会的距離を毀損することの禁止であるとして把え、ミクロネシア・ポナペ島におけるアヴォイダンスの事例分析を提示し、アヴォイダンスとポナペに固有の価値規準、尊敬、権威とが、社会関係の統合化に結びつく過程を、社会組織との関連において、具体的に記述する。
    ポナペのアヴォイダンス、いわゆる五種類のペル関係が、諸個人の地位=役割、各レベルの社会組織と関連しながら、首長制を骨格とする政治組織に包含、統合される諸過程の分析をふまえ、これを社会関係の全体的構成モデルと対照する。その際に、首長制社会は価値規準としてのワウと、アヴォイダンスとしてのペル関係との関連において把握される。
    ついで、ポナペの事例との対比のために、隣接するトラック島のアヴォイダンスを考察し、アヴォイダンスが、地位対地位の関係として、尊敬、権威と結びつくとき、さまざまな社会関係の統合化過程の一位相として、位置づけられることを明らかにする。
  • 丸山 徳
    民族衛生
    1961年 27 巻 1 号 18-52,A3
    発行日: 1961年
    公開日: 2010/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    From the psychiatric point of view, 198 cases of divorce from the village zone in S. prefecture placed near to Tokyo were in vestigated.
    In this district, the manner of life is comparatively modernised and the degree of culture is rather high but in the manners or customs, especially in the feeling about marriage, between the bride and her mother-in-law there is yet the custom of the priniciple of family first or like the old feudal custom.
    The will or hope of the people who want marriage is not highly valued, many people are completed to marry for the hope of the family, the term of each intercourse after the first interview is short in many cases, there are remarkably many cases like this among the divorced.
    In occuring from the factors of divorce, 198 cases are classified in 7 groups.
    After omitting the 2 groups, namely the group based on illness (D group) and on poverty (E group), another cases are divided into 2 large groups: the I st large group is chracterized by the failure in human relationship between the husband and wife or interfamiliar persons (P. & So. groups). The 2nd large group is characterized by the deviated personality (I., G. & Sx groups). In the P. & So. groups there are many cases of the so-called interview marriage after the short term intercourse.
    Their human relationship from the victimological point of view is also reserched. About the I., G. & Sx. groups we valued it applying the Glueck's theory of prediction of crime after making a decision of the defects causing divorces.
    As the result, we thought that, in these groups (esp. in I & G), the predicition of divorce could be previously established before such events.
  • 余部 福三
    日本中東学会年報
    1988年 3 巻 1 号 153-174
    発行日: 1988/03/31
    公開日: 2018/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Qarmatian movement was probably first organized by Muhammad b. Isma'il or his sons in the middle of the ninth century in order to seize the caliphate from the 'Abbasids, after the "historical compromise" through which al-Ma'mun dared to attempt to conciliate the 'Alids, ended in failure. Ibn Rizam's story that 'Abdullah b. Maymun initiated the movement and his sons continued to hold the leadership is certainly forged. This movement seems to have soon been divided into many independent regional factions each of which had their own candidates for the imamate. The 'Iraqi faction began to propagate their cause in the villages of Sawad al-Kufa at the end of the ninth century. Their first recognizable leader was Zakrawayh, while the alleged founders, Hamdan Qarmat and 'Abdan, cannot be testified to be real persons in the sources. They did not propagate the tenets which contradicted Islam, though it is possible that they organized their followers into the community of wealth. But they failed to attract peasants as many as to challenge the 'Abbasid army and consequently were easily crushed. Then they turned to the Arab nomads living in the steppe near the Euphrates. Only the tribes that carried the merchandise through the Syrian desert, the 'Ulays and the Asbagh, both sub-tribes of Kalb, responded to their appeal and recognized the leadership of Sahib al-naqa and Sahib al-shama successively. Maybe both Sahib al-naqa and Sahib al-shama were really Muhammad b. Isma'il's grandsons. At least the 'Ulays and the Asbagh sincerely believed so. The Qarmatians, mainly composed of the 'Ulays and the Asbagh tribesmen, attacked the cities in Syria and on the Euphrates under the command of their tribal leaders. To their dissapointment, the urban poor did not join their army but cooperated with the government army everywhere and fought them vehemently. Even most of the 'Alids including Muhammad b. Isma'il's descendants opposed the Qarmatians. Then they constituted the Twelve-Imam Party, the opposition party within the 'Abbasid Establishment, and deffered the political activity to the unknown future by setting up the hidden imam. The urban poor and the peasants did not support the Qarmatians, partly because the anti-Qarmatian propaganda of the Establishment including the moderate Shi'ites that they were an anti-Islamic movement having nothing to do with 'Alids permeated the people, but chiefly because the allegiance of the people to the 'Abbasid caliphs was beyond the Qarmatian shaking off.
  • 田中 一弘
    大日本耳鼻咽喉科會會報
    1934年 39 巻 11 号 1879-1999_1
    発行日: 1934/02/28
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 菊地 靖
    民族學研究
    1973年 37 巻 4 号 243-261
    発行日: 1973/03/31
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Batangan is a large pagan group, still unstudied, who numbers approximately 3, 000 persons. It is the primary purpose of this paper to raise problems about bilateral social organization which is found througout the Philippines. Batangan social structure is of considerable interest as it appears to provide a variant of cognatic societies. Although there are widespread similarities among the peoples who speak of themselves as Batangan, or Taobuid, there are sub-cultural and social distinctions. The initial work among the Batangan has been concerned with distinctions between two groups--Bayanan and Saragan--and their relationships with the larger Filipino society. And in this paper the writer is concerned with two specific problems : (1) the emergence of the formal leader and his household-line among them. It is the hypohtesis in this paper that these are equivalent ; and, (2) the social mechanism for inheriting ritual paraphernalia and the succession to magico-religious office.
  • 環太平洋国際関係史のイメージ
    浅香 幸枝
    国際政治
    1993年 1993 巻 102 号 135-148,L15
    発行日: 1993/02/28
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Pan American Nikkei (people of Japanese origin) Conventions, which started in Mexico in July 1981 and are held in a country of North or South America every two years, have finally had their sixth assembly in Paraguay in 1991. The successful people who attend this assembly have a tendency to devote themselves to their own native countries in the Americas, while maintaining a positive relationship with their Japanese origin. The Pan American Nikkei Association (PANA), with its head office in Lima, Peru, has organized these assemblies in the Americas to support compensation for World War II forced evacuations and damages. It promotes mutual help in some disasters, improvement of the working situation of Nikkei in Japan, and support for Peruvian Nikkei President FUJIMORI.
    The Nikkei are sometimes considered in the Americas to be “Japanese”, even though their citizenship is not Japanese. That is to say they are like a show-window of “Japan” in the Americas. The explanation for the change in the image of Japan through the leaders of PANA will contribute to recognition of the evolution of the popular image of Japan in history, and to international relations around the “Pacific Rim”.
    Today so many people cross national boundaries that it is considered necessary to maintain good relations among all peoples. This research will propose suggestions to improve the situation of people who live in foreign countries through the reflections of the change in the image of Japan in the Americas through the opinions of the leaders of PANA, from 1940 to 1992. The time and length limitations of this paper have obliged me to limit my analysis to six leaders in the USA, Mexico and Peru.
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