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全文: "Occipital pole"
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  • Tetsuo Hamamatsu, Yoichi Nakagawa, Makoto Tamai, Masatoshi Ito
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    2000年 190 巻 4 号 249-260
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2005/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Macular hole is a specific disease of the central retina that affects central visual acuity and central visual field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alteration of visual processing in patients with macular hole who had small central scotoma. Six patients with macular hole participated in this study. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure task-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow to identify regions of the brain activated during visual stimulation. Three tasks were performed in each eye: control task, checkerboard task, shape-discrimination task. Checkerboard stimuli caused a greater blood flow activation response in normal eyes than in affected eyes at the occipital cortex. The area involved in the macular hole appeared to be 20 mm or more anteriorly from the occipital pole. The Shape-discrimination task in affected eyes activated angular gyrus, inferoparietal lobule, and middle frontal gyrus. Our findings demonstrated greater confidence in Horton's new retinotopic map than in Holmes' retinotopic map in cortical areas involved in macular function. The dorsal pathway of the visual system was activated more than the ventral pathway in patients with macular hole.
  • Teru KAWAMATA, Kiyoshi MATSUMOTO, Noboru GOTO, Minoru KOHDA
    The Showa University Journal of Medical Sciences
    1996年 8 巻 1 号 103-111
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2010/09/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The morphometric anatomy of the superficial cerebral veins in relation to cerebral gyri was studied in 244 cadaveric cerebral hemispheres. Our morphometry revealed that the position of the central sulcus and that of the parieto-occipital sulcus near the superior sagittal sinus were at 55% and 83.6% respectively of the half-perimeter running from the frontal pole to the occipital pole (FO) . The drainage position of the central sulcal vein (of Rolando) into the superior sagittal sinus was about 65% of the FO half-perimeter on each side. The three main drainage veins among the superficial cerebral veins are classified into four types: (1) left predominant, (2) right predominant, (3) no laterality, and (4) absent. No laterality predominance was observed regarding the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius) . The inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe), however, was predominant on the left hemisphere. The superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard) was observed with similar frequency in each type. In conclusion, the superficial cerebral veins can be classified into eight different types according to venous drainages.
  • Taiko KITAMURA, Hiroko SUZUKI, Hidenori YOKOTA, Eiju WATANABE, Jinzo YAMADA
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    2017年 94 巻 1 号 7-15
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    We measured the lengths of some parts of the right and left hemispheres (HEs) in 70 formalin-fixed brains and on 15 computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) images (7 left-handed and 8 right-handed cases) to clarify the morphological changes indicating which HE developed earlier and handedness. In many cases of the fixed brains, 1) the distance from the frontal pole to the occipital pole was longer in the left HE than in the right HE, 2) the distance from the middle plane to the lateral-most portion of the HE was wider in the right HE than in the left HE, 3) the left occipital pole elongated more posteriorly and covered the right occipital pole, and 4) the volume of each HE was nearly the same. The results indicate that the left HE develops and grows slightly earlier in the larger semi-cranium (half of the cranium) than the right HE which develops later in the smaller semi-cranium. The whole brain was more spherical in the female cases than in the male cases. The morphological changes in both HEs for handedness were not evident on the CT/MRI images.

  • Keiji SANO, Norio NAKAMURA, Kimiyoshi HIRAKAWA, Hideaki MASUZAWA, Keizo HASHIZUME, Tsuyoshi HAYASHI, Sumiji FUJII
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1967年 9 巻 21-33
    発行日: 1967年
    公開日: 2007/08/17
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Yasuhiro KIKUCHI, Tatsuya SASAKI, Masato MATSUMOTO, Tomoyoshi OIKAWA, Takeshi ITAKURA, Namio KODAMA
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2005年 45 巻 7 号 349-355
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/07/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    This study investigated whether the optic nerve evoked potential (ONEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve can serve as a reliable intraoperative indicator of visual function. In the experimental study, two silver-ball stimulating electrodes were placed on the dog optic nerve adjacent to the apex of the orbit and one recording electrode was placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm. The nerve was stimulated with 0.1 to 10 mA rectangular pulses. Stable and reproducible ONEPs were obtained. The ONEPs were not influenced by electromyographic potentials and were recorded more clearly on the optic nerve than on the surrounding tissue. Stepwise incremental transection of the thickness of the nerve resulted in incremental amplitude reduction proportional to the transected area. No response was recorded after complete sectioning of the nerve. In the clinical study, recordings were obtained from 15 patients after craniotomy to treat parasellar tumors or cerebral aneurysms. Reproducible ONEPs were recorded intraoperatively from the electrode placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm in 14 of 15 patients. In the remaining patient, the ONEP, recorded only after tumor removal because the optic nerve was stretched and extremely thin, was remarkably small and the patient developed unilateral blindness postoperatively. These experimental and clinical results suggest the possibility of intraoperative monitoring of visual function in patients undergoing craniotomy for the treatment of lesions near the optic nerve.
  • 時々輪 浩穏
    The Japanese Journal of Physiology
    1973年 23 巻 5 号 465-476
    発行日: 1973年
    公開日: 2011/06/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to reexamine the cortical distribution of the callosal connection, as well as its topographical relation to the binocular area in the rabbit visual cortex, the distribution of cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve and by direct cortical stimulation of the opposite visual area were studied in thirty immobilized animals.
    1. The early response to ipsilateral optic nerve stimulation was similar in latency and waveform to that of the contralateral stimulation, and the area giving this response was determined as the binocular area. The binocular area which was a band of 6-7mm wide extended from the anteromedial to the posterolateral portion across the visual cortex.
    2. Besides the early response, the binocular area showed the later response to ipsilateral optic nerve stimulation. The later response was found to be mediated via the corpus callosum, because it was abolished by cooling the opposited visual cortex. The interval between the beginning of the early and late responses was comparable with the latency of the transcallosal response elicited by direct cortical stimulation. The transcallosal response was also abolished permanently by cutting the posterior half of the corpus callosum. The area of transcallosal response and the area effective in eliciting this response were found to be in good agreement with each other and with the binocular area.
    3. The callosal connection between the two binocular areas was not necessarily homotopic. For diffusely distributed points of stimulation in the binocular area of one cortex the points showing the maximal callosal responses in the other cortex were arranged in a narrow band in the middle of the binocular area. This band, about 1mm wide and running obliquely about 45 degrees to the midline, seemed to correspond to the projection line of the vertical meridian (decussation line) determined by Thompson et al.
    These results suggest that the whole binocular area of both hemispheres in the rabbit are interconnected via the corpus callosum, and that the callosal fibers from the binocular area of one cortex terminate most densely in the middle of the opposite binocular area.
  • DAISUKE KUBO, REIKO T. KONO, GEN SUWA
    Anthropological Science
    2011年 119 巻 2 号 123-135
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2010/11/25
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
    The Late Pleistocene fossil human remains (individuals I–IV) of Minatogawa, Okinawa Island are important in addressing the population history of the Japanese archipelago and in understanding evolution of Homo sapiens in eastern Asia. This study is the first on Minatogawa I’s endocranial morphology, based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). We digitally reconstructed the Minatogawa I endocast, and created its physical model using a three-dimensional printer system. We compared the Minatogawa I endocast with available H. sapiens and archaic Homo endocasts. We found that Minatogawa I exhibits key derived endocranial features of H. sapiens, such as a highly elevated parietal, endocranial widening confined to a relatively anterior position, and a narrow internal occipital crest. The short, wide, and low proportioned Minatogawa I endocranium lies metrically at the margins of the modern human ranges of variation of this study. The Minatogawa I endocast exhibits a slightly underdeveloped frontal region with marked parasagittal ridges, a weak endocranial parietal boss, and a strong temporal bulge. It differs from Liujiang in the strong expression of these features as well as in overall metric proportions. A weak endocranial parietal boss and a strong temporal bulge are shared by Skhul V and Qafzeh 9, and may represent a primitive condition for H. sapiens in general.
  • Kimiyoshi HIRAKAWA, Keizo HASHIZUME, Norio NAKAMURA, Keiji SANO
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1971年 11 巻 34-45
    発行日: 1971年
    公開日: 2007/01/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Optic nerve injury or blindness after head trauma has well been known since the days of Hippocrates, and has still remained one of the serious posttaumatic sequelae. Statistically about 2% of head-injured persons suffer from the visual loss and are impelled to have limited social activites3). As the victims of traffic accidents are increasing every year, the studies about this problem are urgent.
    Clinical manifestations of the injury of the optic nerve have been well known. The reports of many institutions have shown almost the same results. The summaries are as follows3): There is a constant mode of trauma to make an injury. It occurs frequently in motorcycle accidents. Sometimes it occurs even in trivial accidents, where impact force is not always so large. The blow is usually given to the front of the head. Symptomatologically visual loss occurs immediately after the trauma and is limited usually to the eye on the ipsilateral side to the impact and spares the eye on the contralateral side. Diagnosis is guided from the loss of direct light reflex of the affected side. The fracture of the optic canal is often visualized in X-ray studies. Surgical intervention is not fully effective.
    From the pathological view point, there are so many therories as to the causative factors of the injury of the optic nerve. The fracture of the optic canal, the bleeding of the sheath of the optic nerve, and the tearing of nerve fibers are prominent among them. Fracture theory seems most attractive because the fracture of the optic canal is found in 60-90% cases in X-ray studies.
    So far, these clinical and pathological data have strongly suggested that mechanical factors play an important role to cause the lesion. However, there has never been a fundamental engineering study. Therefore in this paper, mechnical studies were performed to investigate the mechanism and to clarify the threshold of the impact force of the fracture of the optic canal, which is thought to be closely relevent to the ipsilateral optic nerve injury. The studies were made up of series of experiments.
  • 渡辺 攻, 高瀬 学, 北原 聰樹, 三橋 広光, 小宮 博一
    脳卒中の外科
    1987年 15 巻 4 号 451-456
    発行日: 1987/11/20
    公開日: 2012/10/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Four cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformations of the medial occipital lobe were successfully removed 1) with the patients in a prone position and 2) with microsurgical techniques. In this paper, the authors describe the details on positioning the patient on the operating table, keeping the head just above the heart level and rotating the table laterally when needed, and the microsurgical approach through an unilateral occipital craniotomy to those deep-seated AVMs with their unique vascular supply and drainage in the posterior end of the longitudinal cerebral fissure.
  • 佐々木 啓, 溝井 茂, 赤島 章, 品川 森一, 後藤 仁
    日本獸醫學雜誌(The Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science)
    1986年 48 巻 4 号 791-796
    発行日: 1986/08/15
    公開日: 2008/02/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    3頭のヒツジ(4歳4か月齢から5歳4か月齢)の大脳, 中脳, 橋, 延髄の灰白質と, 大脳白質に海綿状変化が認められた。電顕的に, 海綿状変化は神経細胞および神経膠細胞の胞体における空胞形成, 神経細胞および神経膠細胞の突起の空胞化や腫脹, 軸索周囲腔の拡張ならびに髄鞘の分離に由来していた。神経細胞の胞体の空胞は小胞体と関連していた; 空胞に隣接して小胞体やゴルジ装置が拡張していた。神経細胞および神経膠細胞における空胞形成や腫脹は原発性変化とみなされた。
  • 太田 雅博
    The Japanese Journal of Physiology
    1968年 18 巻 1 号 100-124
    発行日: 1968年
    公開日: 2011/06/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Adult rats (Wistar King A) were used, thirty-seven animals for recording antidromic cortical responses, five for observation of the motor effect of cortical stimulation and three for histological sections of the cerebral cortex.
    2. Electrical stimuli were applied to the medullary pyramidal tract in slightly anesthetized rats and the potential changes were recorded at the cortical surface and from various depths of the cortex.
    3. The resultant responses of the cortex consisted of an initial sharp positive wave (P I) followed by a secondary small positive wave (P II) and a slow negative wave (N). The P I had the lowest threshold to medullary pyramid stimulation and most faithfully followed the increase in frequency of stimulation up to a frequency of 300/sec.
    4. The distribution of the potential changes at various points of the cortical surface evoked with submaximal stimulation to the medullary pyramidal tract was measured. The maximal potential was recorded at a point 6.0 mm anterior from the line connecting the both ears and 3.0 mm lateral from the midline. The amplitude of the waves gradually decreased in the frontal direction from the maximal responsive point, and in the occipital direction it rapidly decreased to an immeasurably small level. The potential at the frontal pole was about one sixth of the maximum. In a lateral direction, the amplitude at a point 2.0 mm lateral from the midline was slightly small than at 3.0 mm and the amplitude both at 1.0 and 4.0 mm was about a half of that at 3.0 mm.
    5. The distribution of the antidromic cortical response coincided fairly well with the histological distribution of the pyramidal cell in the cerebral cortex of the rat.
    6. Recording from the depths of the cortex, the P I changed its polarity into a negative deflection at about 2.0 mm below the pial surface and the P II changed into a negative potential at a depth of about 1.5 mm. The N decreased to zero and sometimes seemed to reverse into a very small positive wave at about 1.5 mm below the surface.
    7. The above results suggest that the P I corresponds to antidromic impulses which invaded the large pyramidal cells in the deeper cortical layers with axons of faster conduction velocity and that the P II is composed of the antidromic impulses of the pyramidal neurons in the more superficial layers with axons of slower conduction velocity. It is considered that the N might represent the potentials of the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells conducting toward. the pial surface.
    8. The studies of cortical hemisphere stimulation reveal that the functional motor area occupies a part a little anterior to a location of the antidromic cortical response and the pyramidal cells.
    9. The functional significance of the pyramidal tract in the rat was discussed.
  • Masakazu Sano, Junichi Yoshimura, Yukihiko Fujii
    NMC Case Report Journal
    2018年 5 巻 1 号 27-30
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/01/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/11/17
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス HTML

    Craniosynostosis associated with Chiari malformation (CM) is usually found in infants with an underdeveloped posterior fossa. We here present a case of adult craniosynostosis, CM, and symptomatic syringomyelia caused by the protrusion of the posterior rim of the foramen magnum without a tight posterior fossa. A 22-year-old woman with an abnormal head shape and forearm hypesthesia was given a diagnosis of sagittal suture synostosis with CM and syringomyelia caused by foramen magnum stenosis. She underwent foramen magnum decompression with a C1 laminectomy without cranial vault expansion or duraplasty. Her symptoms and radiographical findings improved after surgery. In cases of non-operative craniosynostosis with CM, clinicians should be alert to late-onset syringomyelia and choose surgical strategies according to the pathophysiology.

  • TAKASHI YAMADORI, KOICHI SUKEKAWA, TAKEHIKO UMETANI, ATSUSHI YAMADORI
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    1982年 58 巻 4-6 号 627-633
    発行日: 1982年
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    To determine the difference of size between the cortical speech region in the dominant hemisphere and its corresponding region in the other hemisphere, the planum temporale was measured and compared by means of a rubbed copy method using 50 brains of both sexes. The planum temporale was significantly larger in the left hemisphere than in the right.
  • Yukihisa Suzuki, Motohiro Kiyosawa, Keiichi Oda, Kiich Ishiwata, Kenji Ishii
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    2016年 238 巻 4 号 267-271
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
    Damage to the visual cortex or the geniculostriatal pathways could cause homonymous visual field (VF) defects at the contralateral side of the lesion. In clinical practice, it is known that the VF defects are gradually recovered over months on the cases. We report a case with recovered homonymous hemianopia following an infarction in the visual cortex by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 11C-flumazenil (FMZ). A 58-year-old man experienced defect of left VF, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a localized infarction in the right occipital lobe. Goldmann VF perimetry revealed left homonymous hemianopia, but central VF was intact. Three months after the onset of infarction, we measured cerebral glucose metabolism with FDG and FMZ binding using PET. FMZ binding reflects the density of surviving neurons. Moreover, eight months after the onset, FDG-PET scan was performed. Goldmann VF perimetry was also performed at the same times of PET examinations. Decrease of cerebral glucose metabolism in the right anterior striate cortex was observed at three months after onset, while FMZ binding in the same area did not decrease in the patient. At eight months after onset, we observed recovery of VF and improvement of cerebral glucose metabolism in the anterior striate cortex. We presented change of cerebral glucose metabolism using PET accompanying improvement of VF. Evaluation of cerebral glucose metabolism and FMZ binding in the striate cortex is useful for estimating the prognosis of hemianopia caused by organic brain damage.
  • Chikao NAGASHIMA, Akihiro IKEDA
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1972年 12 巻 64-70
    発行日: 1972年
    公開日: 2007/01/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The cerebello-pontine angle (C-P angle) is the most common location for meningiomas in the posterior fossa9)12), and the posterior surface of the petrous bone is its most frequent site of dural attachment.2) Two thirds of the meningiomas of the posterior fossa arise at the porus acousticus or just medial to it.10 The tumor as it enlarges has a predilection for extension into the region of the tentorial notch, causing an upward bulging of the tentorium with rostral protrusion of the upper surface of the cerebellum through the tentorial opening.11) The ease with which large subtentorial tumors with rostro-ventral overgrowth can be approached through a temporal route rather than a suboccipital route5)6) led us to use this simple method of removing the large meningioma of the C-P angle through a large window of the tentorium, from above.
  • Yukinobu IKEDA, Makoto SAKAI, Fumio YAGI
    生理心理学と精神生理学
    2000年 18 巻 1 号 35-43
    発行日: 2000/04/30
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    In a previous study we investigated the effects of callosal transected lesions made 10 weeks earlier (the 10-week-old callosal transected lesions), either at 3 weeks of age or at 13 weeks of age, upon the acquisition of a black-white (BW) discrimination in rats either with one eye removed at birth (OEB) or at 13 weeks of age (OET) following lesions of the contralateral (CT) visual cortex to the remaining eye. The CT visual cortex lesions were performed right before the training of BW discrimination. We found that the 10-week-old callosal transected lesions facilitated the acquisition in OEBs when the callosal lesions were given at 3 weeks of age, and to a lesser extent at 13 weeks of age. We also found that the same type of callosal transected lesions did not do so in OETs, regardless of the age when the callosal lesions were made.
    Since the CT visual cortex lesions inevitably result in damage of the callosal neurons, and lead to de-generation of the callosal afferents in the ipsilateral (IP) visual cortex, the present study was undertaken to investigate if the CT visual cortex lesions made 10 weeks earlier (the 10-week-old CT visual cortex lesions), made either at 3 weeks of age or 13 weeks of age, would affect the acquisition of BW discrimination in OEBs and OETs, like the 10-week-old callosal transected lesions employed in the previous study mentioned above.
    We found that in both OEBs and OETs the overall pattern of the facilitation effects of the 10-week-old CT visual cortex lesions on the acquisition of BW discrimination is, in general, the same as that observed in the 10-week-old callosal transected lesions, but the facilitative effect of the 10-week-old CT visual cortex lesions is more prevailing and pronounced. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible involvement of neurotrophic factors, released when the CT visual cortex lesions were made, in synaptic reorganization, and also in relation to the possibility of the increased use of the uncrossed visual pathways.
  • JP Mattos, E Ghizoni, E Oliveira, H Tedeschi
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    2005年 14 巻 6 号 363-367
    発行日: 2005/06/20
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    The treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) depends on the efforts of a multidisciplinary team to provide better results than its natural course. Treatment options are reviewed based on our personal experience series of 208 grade III operated AVMs in a 10-year period. The Spetzler-Martin classification was modified to include subdivisions in the heterogeneous group of grade III AVMs as follows : IIIA(large cortical AVMs), IIIB(small limbic lobe AVMs) and IIIC(small insula lobe AVMs), to augment the surgical resection criteria. The treatment strategy was for most of the cases embolization plus surgery for grade IIIA, surgery for subdivision IIIB and radiosurgery for most and surgery for selected cases of IIIC. The surgical results (good outcome : IIIA 81%, IIIB 86% and IIIC 87%) showed that in spite of the higher surgical and anatomical complexity for the IIIC group in comparison with those IIIB and IIIA AVMs, there are selected cases that can be surgically approached with similar or even better surgical outcomes based on the subdivision proposed. Indeed, these data indicate that the treatment of AVMs can achieve better results when compared to its natural course if managed by a well-trained group of specialists led by an experienced neurosurgeon.
  • Koji IIDA, Hiroshi OTSUBO
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2017年 57 巻 8 号 375-385
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a method for invasive study of patients with refractory epilepsy. Localization of the epileptogenic zone in SEEG relied on the hypothesis of anatomo-electro-clinical analysis limited by X-ray, analog electroencephalography (EEG), and seizure semiology in the 1950s. Modern neuroimaging studies and digital video-EEG have developed the hypothesis aiming at more precise localization of the epileptic network. Certain clinical scenarios favor SEEG over subdural EEG (SDEEG). SEEG can cover extensive areas of bilateral hemispheres with highly accurate sampling from sulcal areas and deep brain structures. A hybrid technique of SEEG and subdural strip electrode placement has been reported to overcome the SEEG limitations of poor functional mapping. Technological advances including acquisition of three-dimensional angiography and magnetic resonance image (MRI) in frameless conditions, advanced multimodal planning, and robot-assisted implantation have contributed to the accuracy and safety of electrode implantation in a simplified fashion. A recent meta-analysis of the safety of SEEG concluded the low value of the pooled prevalence for all complications. The complications of SEEG were significantly less than those of SDEEG. The removal of electrodes for SEEG was much simpler than for SDEEG and allowed sufficient time for data analysis, discussion, and consensus for both patients and physicians before the proceeding treatment. Furthermore, SEEG is applicable as a therapeutic alternative for deep-seated lesions, e.g., nodular heterotopia, in nonoperative epilepsies using SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. We review the SEEG method with technological advances for planning and implantation of electrodes. We highlight the indication and efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of SEEG compared with SDEEG.

  • 江部 充, 三上 智久, 伊藤 弘多加
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    1964年 84 巻 1 号 92-103
    発行日: 1964/10/25
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Both scotopie ERG and photically evoked potential were simultaneously recorded on 15 cases of optic atrophy, 19 of retinal degenerative disorders and 4 of cataracts. The evoked potentials were recored by Dawson's superimposed meth-od. In optic atrophy the ERG is normal, but the evoked potential is undetectable in cases of total blindness. In retinitis pigmentosa the ERG is undetectable in most cases and the evoked potential also tends to be affected; it either becomes unde-tectable or is decreased in amplitude, but in macular atrophy and in retinochoroidal atrophy both ERG and the evoked potential are normal or slightly affected in spite of deterioration of the visual function. The similar tendency is observed in cataract. Simultaneous recording of ERG and evoked potential is useful supplementary method for topical diagnosis of the involved visual system.
  • Fernando VINUELA, Gary DUCKWILER, Y. Pierre GOBIN, Guido GUGLIELMI
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1998年 38 巻 suppl 号 26-32
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2008/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー
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