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全文: "PATM"
315件中 1-20の結果を表示しています
  • 川上 裕司, 関根 嘉香, 木村 桂大, 戸高 惣史, 小田 尚幸
    室内環境
    2018年 21 巻 1 号 19-30
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    自分自身が皮膚から放散する化学物質によって,周囲の他人に対してくしゃみ,鼻水,咳,目の痒みや充血などのアレルギー反応を引き起こさせる体質について,海外ではPATM(People Allergic to Me)と呼ばれ,一般にも少しずつ知られてきている。しかしながら,日本では殆ど一般に認知されておらず,学術論文誌上での報告も見当たらない。著者らはPATMの男性患者(被験者)から相談を受け,聞き取り調査,皮膚ガス測定,着用した肌着からの揮発性化学物質測定,鼻腔内の微生物検査を実施した。その結果,被験者の皮膚ガスからトルエンやキシレンなどの化学物質が対照者と比べて多く検出された。また,被験者の皮膚から比較的高い放散量が認められたヘキサン,プロピオンアルデヒド,トルエンなどが着用後の肌着からも検出された。被験者の鼻腔内から分離された微生物の大半は皮膚の常在菌として知られている表皮ブドウ球菌(Staphylococcus epidermidis)であった。分離培地上でドブ臭い悪臭を放つ放線菌(Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans)が分離されたことはPATMと何か関連性があるかもしれない。また,浴室や洗面所の赤い水垢の起因真菌として知られている赤色酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa)がヒトの鼻腔内から分離されたことは新たな知見である。この結果から,PATMは被験者の思い込みのような精神的なものではなく,皮膚から放散される化学物質が関与する未解明の疾病の可能性が示唆された。
  • 和佐田 信, 遠藤 正樹
    日本機械学会論文集
    2014年 80 巻 818 号 FE0300
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/10/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In recent years, the number of cars and motorcycles has increased around the world and now reached more than a billion. The environmental pollution is caused by the traffic emissions, being critical problem. As one of the countermeasures, higher and higher level standards of emissions have been defined in developed countries. A catalytic converter is one of the most important parts of vehicles' emissions control system, its operating temperature being very high. Vehicles emit most of their pollution during the first a few minutes of engine operation before the catalytic converter has warmed up sufficiently to be effective. Therefore, this study focuses on heating the converter up to the operating temperature, using wave phenomena formed in the exhaust pipe. A real automotive exhaust pipe is modelled as a straight pipe with an obstacle having honeycomb structure, instead of the catalytic converter. A pulsating flow is generated in the pipe using a rotary valve of which opening area changes with time corresponding to that of the exhaust port in a real engine. The pressure histories along the pipe and the temperature in the obstacle are measured. Analyzing the measurement data, the formation of shock is found to play an important role in the temperature rise of the obstacle. Furthermore, the relation is discussed between the wave phenomena and the heat transfer to the obstacle.
  • 中川 順達, 竹中 俊夫
    日本機械学会論文集 B編
    1991年 57 巻 538 号 1985-1988
    発行日: 1991/06/25
    公開日: 2008/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since the closed pipe under generation of the cooling cavity holds the low pressure near the saturation vapor pressure, quickly opening of the valve at an end of the pipe in that condition, the cavity is collapsed by the impressed atmospheric pressure, and an intense waterhammer occurs. The above phenomenon is modeled by the rigid column theory. The theoretical expression is derived to give the maximum pressure rise using the volumetric fraction of the cavity, the impressed pressure difference, the density and the sonic velocity of the liquid in the pipe. The estimated curve is compared with the experimental data. A weak buffer effect of the air in the cavity is shown quantitatively by the experiment. Because of the air containment, the cavity does not completely disappear and some bubbles of air remain after the collapse.
  • Eiichi Shimazaki, Noboru Matsumoto, Kichizo Niwa
    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan
    1957年 30 巻 9 号 969-971
    発行日: 1957年
    公開日: 2006/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The apparent vapor pressure of solid germanium dioxide, or the dissociation pressure for the reaction GeO2(c) = GeO(g)+1/2 O2(g), was measured over the temperature range 1,040 – 1,100°C by the Knudsen’s effusion method; the results are expressed by equation (4).
    From the free energy equation, the heat of reaction, the free energy and the entropy change of the reaction were calculated as ΔH298=121.7±0.3kcal./mol., ΔG298=101.7kcal./mol. and ΔS298=67.3 e.u., respectively. The heat of reaction is in good agreement with the value calculated from accessible thermal data. The normal entropy of solid germanium dioxide was calculated as S298=10.8±1.0 e.u., which is in agreement with the computed value obtained by Bues and von Wartenberg.
  • ROBERT F. MORAN
    臨床化学
    1989年 18 巻 2 号 68-75
    発行日: 1989/08/31
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    As indicated at the outset of this report, the critical nature of the clinical requirements when blood gas testing is indicated, coupled with the labile nature of the sample and rapidly changing patient conditions makes it imperative that the analyst be aware of more than just the analysis it self Knowledge by the analyst, of the physiology of blood gas, the interpretation of basic blood gas results, the effects of the changing patient environment and the manner in which the sample is treated in a few short minutes from collection to reporting are equally important if one is to assure timely and clinically meaningful results.
  • 米田 健, 甲山 隆司, 堀田 満
    Tropics
    1999年 8 巻 4 号 357-375
    発行日: 1999年
    公開日: 2009/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    インドネシア,西スマトラ州の亜山地性多雨林域において,12年間のモニタリング調査から得た皆伐跡地二次林の林分構造と一次生産力の経年変化にもとづき,湿潤熱帯下での二次林の遷移過程を解析した.
    二次林の構成種数は1000 m2程度の小面積で胸高直径が5cm上を対象とした場合,30-40種程度と成熟林分の半分以下で,また数種の明瞭な優占種が存在した.それらの種は,いずれも伐採後種子から生長した二次林種であった.生体量の回復速度は土壌条件により大きく異なり,湿潤で肥沃な場所では,伐採後9年で地上部現存量が300ton ha-1以上の回復を示した.しかし,その後急速に優占種が多数枯れ,萌芽更新型の種群や成熟林構成型種群の優占度が相対的に高まった.萌芽更新型の種では,株サイズが更新初期の生長速度と高い正の相関を示したことから,強度の伐採圧はこの種群に有利に働くことが示唆された.
    二次林構成種は成熟林の構成種に比べ全体的に幹材の物理的硬度が低く,また二次林構成種間において柔らかい樹木ほど肥大生長速度が高いことが判明した.この硬度と生長速度との関係を用い,モデル計算により同一サイズで堅さの異なる樹木間での生長量を比較したところ,乾物生産量ではほとんど差がなかった.このことから,個体レベルでの潜在的生産能力には種間で大差なく,生存戦略に対応した部位に光合成産物を転流していることが示唆された.
    一次生産力は植生回復の初期段階で最大値を取り,その後一定値を保つ傾向を示した.安定期の値は,隣接する成熟林と有意な差が無く,地下部を考慮するとする26~30ton ha-1 y-12であった.再生段階のごく初期に生産力が最大値を示す理由は,肥大成長率(RGRD)がとくに初期段階で高いことによる.このRGRDと胸高直径の関係における経年変化が,種の入れ替えなしで生じた場合と種間の入れ替えが主な原因として生じた場合の2ケースについて,幹の堅さを考慮した一次生産力の遷移過程を数学モデルを用いて考察した.
  • Ameer A. Hilal, Nicholas H. Thom, Andrew R. Dawson
    Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology
    2014年 12 巻 12 号 535-544
    発行日: 2014/12/12
    公開日: 2014/12/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study has been undertaken to investigate the pore structure characteristics, porosity and critical pore diameter of preformed foamed concrete with a density between 1300 and 1900 kg/m3, and its effect on the permeation characteristics, water absorption and permeability. Different measured and calculated methods were adopted to determine the above properties and a comparison between them was done. Porosity was measured by apparent, total vacuum saturation and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) methods, while permeability was measured (by constant and falling head methods) and calculated (by the Katz and Thompson model). Total porosity and dry density are found to be clearly related. The critical pore diameter (from the MIP test) and the pore diameter size (>200nm) are found to be closely related to the permeability of foamed concrete.
  • A. I. Zaitsev, N. E. Zaitseva, E. Kh. Shakhpazov, B. M. Mogutnov
    ISIJ International
    2004年 44 巻 4 号 639-646
    発行日: 2004/04/15
    公開日: 2007/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Knudsen-cell mass spectrometry and the integral Knudsen effusion technique under ultra-high neutral vacuum were used to study evaporation of pure Fe, Cu and molten Fe-Cu alloys containing up to 10.1 mol% Cu in the temperature range of 1 440 to 1 916 K. Standard sublimation enthalpies of Fe and Cu and thermodynamic characteristics of the Fe-Cu liquid solution were calculated. The obtained results and literature data were applied for assessment of potentialities of steel decopperizing technology based on evaporation. The time required for a decrease in Cu concentration from 0.6 to 0.3 wt% through evaporation from the exposed surface of a 160-tons ladle into vacuum of 100 Pa amounts to 5 h. Decopperizing can be accelerated by combination of vacuum treatment with blowing neutral gases through the molten metal. Two processes are responsible for removal of copper in this case: transfer into gas bubbles, free-rising from the ladle bottom to its surface, and evaporation from molten metal surface, turbulized by blowing-through gas. The length of treatment required for the above decrease in copper concentration under the most favorable conditions (the highest vacuum over the ladle and the highest velocity of gas-stream blowing through the molten metal used in metallurgy) reduces to 1.5 h.
  • 鳥住 保博
    日本機械学会論文集 B編
    1991年 57 巻 534 号 470-472
    発行日: 1991/02/25
    公開日: 2008/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes the mass flow characteristics of free discharge through an orifice. Experiments are carried out to clarify the flow difference between the conventional pipe orifice and the pipe end orifice presented. The results are plotted by introducing λ which is the ratio of real flow rate to the flow determined by using the ASME or JIS regulated value of the pipe orifice into the pipe end orifice case. The experimental results show that the conventional regulated relations of the pipe orifice can be applied correspondingly to the case of this pipe end orifice in subsonic flow regime. The effect of the down-stream pipe length on the flow measurement error, and the effect of an obstacle placed at the free discharge region of the jet on the error are also examined and discussed.
  • Hodaka Kawahata, Atsushi Suzuki, Koichi Goto
    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
    1999年 33 巻 5 号 295-303
    発行日: 1999/10/20
    公開日: 2008/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    The integrated effects of photosynthesis-respiration and precipitation-dissolution of CaCO3 on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (PCO2) by the carbonate-producing biological activities (e.g., coral reefs, coccolithophorids) have been extensively debated. Here we document PCO2 values inside and outside the lagoon of Majuro Atoll. The PCO2 was enhanced by 27 μatm on average within the atoll relative to ocean values. Alkalinity-total CO2 relationship in the lagoonal water indicates that calcification plays a major role in the net carbon cycle in this reef system while rapid turnover of organic matter results in no significant net air-sea flux. The data show that atoll- and barrier-type of coral reefs potentially work as a source of CO2.
  • Kentaro ARIYOSHI, Keiji SUZUKI, Makoto GOTO, Masami WATANABE, Seiji KODAMA
    Journal of Radiation Research
    2007年 48 巻 3 号 219-231
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/05/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2007/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging syndrome caused by mutations of the WRN gene. Here, we demonstrate that a strain of WS fibroblast cells shows abnormal karyotypes characterized by several complex translocations and 50-fold more frequency of abnormal metaphases including dicentric chromosomes without fragments than normal cells when examined at a similar culture stage. Further, telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization indicates that the abnormal signals, extra telomere signal and loss of telomere signal, emerge two- to three-fold more frequently in WS cells than in normal cells. Taken together, these results indicate that chromosome instability including dysfunction of telomere maintenance is more prominent in WS cells than in normal cells. In addition, the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the G1 phase, including those at telomeres, detected by phosphorylated ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) foci is accelerated in WS cells even at a low senescence level. The increased accumulation of DSBs in WS cells is reduced in the presence of anti-oxidative agents, suggesting that enhanced oxidative stress in WS cells is involved in accelerated accumulation of DSBs. These results indicate that WS cells are prone to accumulate DSBs spontaneously due to a defect of WRN, which leads to increased chromosome instability that could activate checkpoints, resulting in accelerated senescence.
  • 近藤 弥太郎
    真空技術
    1952年 3 巻 1 号 22-25
    発行日: 1952年
    公開日: 2009/09/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • ATSUSHI OOKI, YOKO YOKOUCHI
    GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
    2011年 45 巻 2 号 e1-e7
    発行日: 2011/04/20
    公開日: 2013/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The sea-to-air flux of C2H5I (iodoethane) in the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean was estimated from the Henry’s law constant (KH) and the measured partial pressures of C2H5I in surface seawater and air. The values of KH, defined as the ratio of molar concentration (mol l–1) to partial pressure (atm), for ten volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (CFCl3 (CFC-11), C5H8 (isoprene), C2H2F4 (HFC-134a), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3I, CH2Br2, C2H5I, CH2Cl2, CH2ClI, and CHBr3) were measured with an equilibrator and a purge-and-trap system in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ours is the first report of the KH values for C2H5I and C5H8 as functions of temperature. The KH values for the other VOCs were in good agreement with previously reported values. We calculated the sea-to-air flux of C2H5I using the newly determined KH. Large sea-to-air fluxes (average, 0.04 nmol m–2h–1) were widespread in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that high biological productivity led to a high rate of C2H5I production in the subpolar water, and that the strong winds that frequently blow over the Southern Ocean resulted in the large sea-to-air flux.
  • MITSURU ASANO, KENJI KUBO, SABURO MAGARI
    Journal of the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan
    1968年 16 巻 4 号 315-322
    発行日: 1968/12/05
    公開日: 2011/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A Langmuir method has been used to determine the vapor pressure and the heats of vaporization of strontium atoms from strontium oxide applied on tungsten and rhenium surfaces. The data obtained are log Patm=5.064-2.071×104/T and lTo=4.11±0.14eV for tungsten, and log Patm=6.095-2.496×104/T and lTo=4.95±0.14eV for rhenium, respectively. By measuring the ion current of 88Sr+ with a mass spectrometer the values of the heats of vaporization of strontium ions have also been obtained as lT+=7.07±0.08eV and lT+=6.73±0.07eV for tungsten and rhenium, respectively, under the assumption that the ion vaporization processes may be described by the, Saha-Langmuir equation. The work functions of the surfaces applied with strontium oxide have been discussed.
  • Mohammad Jamshidnezhad
    Journal of the Japan Petroleum Institute
    2008年 51 巻 4 号 217-224
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    石油産業におけるアスファルテン析出の問題は,石油精製においてコスト上昇を招いている。そのため原油タンク中のアスファルテン量を予測するモデルの開発が必要とされている。本研究では,Peng-Robinson状態方程式とFlory-Huggins溶解理論に基づいてアスファルテン析出を予測する新たなモデルを開発した。このモデルでは,アスファルテンと液状オイルの溶解度パラメーターの値および原油の熱力学特性値がPeng-Robinson状態方程式から計算されるので,従来に比べて大幅に時間が短縮され,それを用いた簡易なアルゴリズムによる計算が可能となった。二つの原油タンクからの実験データと比較した結果,高い精度でアスファルテン析出挙動を予測することができた。
  • 杉山 勝彦, 小笠原 武夫, 西山 圜
    日本機械学会論文集 B編
    1982年 48 巻 435 号 2227-2235
    発行日: 1982/11/25
    公開日: 2008/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    薄板などを搬送するのに用いるエゼクタ式真空吸着装置のエゼクタ緒元および圧縮空気供給条件と騒音の関係を実験的に調べた. その結果, ある供給圧力で騒音レベルが極小となる特徴的な現象を見い出した. 発生騒音はエゼクタ内の流れ状態と密接な関連を持ち, 騒音レベルが極小となる供給圧力はエゼクタ緒元の影響を受ける. この現象を利用することにより, 騒音を大幅に低減でき, また最適なエゼクタの設計チャートを作成した.
  • 東 忠則, 由良 忠義, 徳永 佳郎
    日本舶用機関学会誌
    1983年 18 巻 10 号 773-777
    発行日: 1983/10/01
    公開日: 2010/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 栗原 千尋, 工藤 帆乃香, 木山 景仁, 田川 義之
    流体工学部門講演会講演論文集
    2016年 2016 巻 0728
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2017/06/19
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    This study investigates general criterion of cavitation occurrence at a sudden acceleration of a liquid. We conduct an experiment as follows: A test tube filled with a liquid falls and hits a floor. The liquid is accelerated quickly and negative pressure is generated inside the liquid. When the negative pressure is large enough, cavitation can happen. In previous study, Ca number is proposed as a cavitation criterion for explaining experimental results installing a SS400 floor. In our preliminary experiments installing an ABS floor, however, results disagree with Ca number. It suggests unsuitable expression of pressure inside the liquid in Ca number. Therefore, this study aims to reformulate Ca number applicable for various floors. We measure acceleration of the test tube time by an acceleration sensor and estimate pressure fluctuation in the liquid. The reformulated number Ca∗ agree well with cavitation criteria for both floors.

  • 井口 理, B. S. Olsen, M. T. Vaesel, H. V. Johannsen, J. O. Søjbjerg
    肩関節
    1996年 20 巻 1 号 87-90
    発行日: 1996/10/15
    公開日: 2012/11/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    The intraarticular pressures of the glenohumeral joint were measured in 15 cadaveric shoulders during passive movement of the humerus and under various inferior loads on the humerus. Using the fiber-optic transducertipped catheter and air-tight connector, the basic intraarticular pressure was measured directly without the injection of any physiological saline solution the joint prior to the measurement. The initial intraarticular pressures were all negative with a mean value of -67.8 mmHg. During abduction-adduction movement the minimal intraarticular pressure was measured at 20 degrees of humeral abduction. During rotation, the minimal intraarticular pressure was observed at neutral humeral rotation. The intraarticular pressure decreased nearly linearly with the increasing inferior load on the humerus. These results indicate that the intraarticular pressure takes part in the stabilization of the glenohumeral joint and the negative intraarticular pressure of the glenohumeral joint induces the maximal stabilizing effect at 20 degrees of humeral abduction and neutral humeral rotation.
  • 杉山 勝彦, 土居 俊一, 小笠原 武夫
    日本機械学会論文集 B編
    1983年 49 巻 443 号 1420-1426
    発行日: 1983/07/25
    公開日: 2008/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    金属切削くずの吹飛ばし等に用いられるノズルに急拡大部を設けた急拡大ノズルは,特定の供給圧力において騒音が低下するという特異な傾向をもつ.この急拡大ノズルの各種諸元に対して,供給圧力と騒音及び空気噴流力の関係を実験的に調査した.その結果,ノズル諸元,騒音,空気噴流力および供給力の間にはいくつかの相関関係が成立し,急拡大ノズルの低騒音化のための設計手法および設計に必要な資料を作成した.
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