2020 Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 61-72
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizer activation by light of a specific wavelength, and is a promising treatment for various cancers; however, the detailed mechanism of PDT remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer effect of PDT using a novel phosphorus tetraphenylporphyrin (Ptpp) in combination with light emitting diodes (Ptpp-PDT) in the NOZ human biliary cancer cell line. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by MTT assay, flow cytometry and TUNEL assay for 24 hr after Ptpp-PDT. MitoTracker and JC-1 were used as markers of mitochondrial localization and membrane potential. The levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 were examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that Ptpp localized to mitochondria, and that Ptpp-PDT efficiently decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. JC-1 and OXPHOS complexes decreased, but apoptotic cells increased from 6 to 24 hr after Ptpp-PDT. A decrease in Bcl-xL and increases in Bax, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 were also found from 6 to 24 hr after Ptpp-PDT. Based on these results, we conclude that Ptpp-PDT induces anticancer effects via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by altering the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, and could be an effective treatment for human biliary cancer.