Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare and aggressive gastrointestinal tract cancer that is characterized by hepatic differentiation and production of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Cisplatin is mainly used to treat HAC, but the efficacy is poor. Recently, the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), was approved as an anticancer agent. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of SAHA in combination with cisplatin in VAT-39 cells, a newly established HAC cell line. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by MTT assay, flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. Expression of H3S10, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. AFP levels were examined in VAT-39 cells and culture medium. Combined treatment with cisplatin and SAHA efficiently inhibited cell proliferation and decreased cell viability. Apoptotic cells, but not necrotic cells, were significantly increased following the combined treatment, and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio indicated that the combination of cisplatin and SAHA induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. VAT-39 cells treated with cisplatin and SAHA also partially lost their main characteristic of AFP production. We conclude that cisplatin and SAHA have a synergistic anticancer effect of inducing apoptosis, and that this combination treatment may be effective for HAC.
B-cell lymphoma 9 (Bcl9) is the core component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and overexpressed in nuclei of various tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the extent of Bcl9 expression relative to HCC differentiation stage and its functional aspects are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of Bcl9 immunohistochemically, using two anti-Bcl9 antibodies; one was a conventional polyclonal-antibody (anti-Bcl9ABC) against amino acid no.800–900 of human-Bcl9, while the other (anti-Bcl9BIO) was against amino acid no.50–200, covering Pygopus-binding sites of Bcl9. Immunohistochemistry using anti-Bcl9BIO demonstrated distinctive staining in the cytoplasm, while the anti-Bcl9ABC signal was detected in both cytoplasm and nuclei of HCC cells, reflecting different states of Bcl9 function because Pygopus-binding to Bcl9 is essential to exert its function together with β-catenin in nucleus. Quantitative analysis revealed a significantly higher immunohistochemical-score by anti-Bcl9BIO in normal liver comparing various differentiation grades of HCC (P < 0.004), whereas no significant difference was noted with anti-Bcl9ABC. Interestingly, immunohistochemical-score of anti-Bcl9BIO in patients aged < 40 years was significantly lower than that of ≥ 40 years group (P < 0.01). The results indicated that anti-Bcl9BIO detected cytoplasmic Bcl9, which does not bind to Pygopus suggesting it could be a useful indicator for development of HCC in young Myanmar patients.
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) usually results from a failure of the medial nasal prominences to fuse with the lateral and maxillary prominences. This failure inhibits facial morphogenesis regulated by several major morphogenetic signaling pathways. We hypothesized that CLP results from the failure of the Wnt signaling pathway. To examine whether Wnt signaling can influences upper jaw development, we applied beads soaked with Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), Alsterpaullone (AL) or Wnt3a to the right side of the maxillary prominence of the chick embryo. The embryo showed a defect of the maxilla on the treated side, and skeletal staining revealed hypoplasia of the premaxilla and palatine bone as a result of Dkk-1-soaked bead implantation. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell numbers in the treated maxillary prominence were significantly lower at both 24 and 48 hr after implantation. Down-regulation of the expression of Bmp4, Tbx22, Sox9, and Barx1 was confirmed in the maxillary prominence treated with Dkk-1, which indicated that the deformity of the maxillary bone was controlled by gene targets of the Wnt signaling pathway. Expression of N-cadherin was seen immunohistochemically in the maxillary prominences of embryos at 6 hr and increased at 24 hr after AL treatment. Wnt signaling enhanced by AL or Wnt3a up-regulated the expression levels of Msx1, Bmp4, Tbx22, Sox9, and Barx1. Our data suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway regulates maxillary morphogenesis and growth through Bmp4, Tbx22, Sox9, and Barx1. Wnt signaling might regulate N-cadherin expression via Msx1, resulting in cell aggregation for osteochondrogenesis.
Knowledge of time sequence of localization of drugs in cells and tissues of animals may help in developing a better understanding of the actual overall pharmacokinetics of the drugs. We produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) against alogliptin (AG), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, conjugated to BSA with N-(γ-maleimidobutyryloxy)-succinimide. The mAb was specific for AG and did not cross-react with sitagliptin, vancomycin or amoxicillin. The mAb enabled us to develop an immunohistochemical method for detecting the localization of AG in the rat small intestine. One hour after a single oral administration of AG, immunohistochemistry revealed that the immunoreactivity of AG was observed in almost all of cells and tissues of the duodenum. The microvilli of the absorptive epithelial cells were moderately stained. The staining pattern of AG at jejunum and ilium was almost the same as that of duodenum, but the staining intensity, especially at absorptive epithelial cells and intestinal gland epithelial cells, became stronger towards the distal part of the small intestine. These results suggested that AG may be more actively absorbed from the lower part of the small intestine than in the upper part. It may affect the function of cells with membrane-bound DPP-4 because it was reported that membrane-bound form of DPP-4 exists in the microvilli of the absorptive epithelial cells.