18 巻 (2013) p. 81-94
English vocatives differ in types, usages and frequency of use from those of Japanese, therefore, for smooth communication in globalized business environments, it is beneficial for the Japanese to understand the use of English vocatives as part of communication in English. In this study, 9 movies featuring American business environments were selected, and relationships between vocatives and speakers' genders and business ranks were analyzed. Results revealed that LN (Last Name), which is said to be used in restricted environments such as the military and public schools, was the most frequently used vocative following FN (First Name). Because the abovementioned environments have commonality that they place a high value on observing a chain of command, it is natural that the vocative is also relatively common in business environments. LN was dominantly used among male business people to 1) assert authority or have commanding presence, 2) express anger, or 3) show solidarity. For communication between female business people, FN was the only vocative used regardless of their ranks. This implies that FN could be used to show equality and solidarity among female business people working in the still male dominating business environments.