Article ID: 120629
The effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3–10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum were examined. When P. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (E)-2-butenal, (E)-2-pentenal, and (E)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/mL respectively. Vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. Treatment of the spores with these aldehydes also resulted in rapid loss of germination ability, within 0.5–2 d. On the other hand, aliphatic aldehydes with 8–10 carbons significantly enhanced patulin production without affecting fungal growth: 300 µg/mL of octanal and 100 µg/mL of (E)-2-octenal increased the patulin concentrations in the culture broth by as much as 8.6- and 7.8-fold as compared to that of the control culture respectively. The expression of the genes involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum was investigated in mycelia cultured in apple juice broth containing 300 µg/mL of octanal for 3.5, 5, and 7 d. Transcription of the msas gene, encoding 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase, which catalyzed the first step in the patulin biosynthetic pathway was remarkably high in the 3.5-d and 5-d-old cultures as compared with the control. However, octanal did not any increase the transcription of the msas in the 7-d-old culture or that of the other two genes, IDH and the peab1, in culture. Thus the enhanced patulin accumulation with supplementation with these aldehydes is attributable to the increased amount of the msas transcript.
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