2008 Volume 31 Issue 8 Pages 1559-1564
Amygdalin is a plant glucoside isolated from the stones of rosaceous fruits, such as apricots, peaches, almond, cherries, and plums. To investigate the pain-relieving activity of amygdalin, we induced pain in rats through intraplantar injection of formalin, and evaluated the antinociceptive effect of amygdalin at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-body weight by observing nociceptive behavior such as licking, biting and shaking, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the plantar skin. The intramuscular injection of amygdalin significantly reduced the formalin-induced tonic pain in both early (the initial 10 min after formalin injection) and late phases (10—30 min following the initial formalin injection). During the late phase, amygdalin did reduce the formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in a dose range less than 1 mg/kg. Molecular analysis targeting c-Fos and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) also showed a significant effect of amygdalin, which matched the results of the behavioral pain analysis. These results suggest that amygdalin is effective at alleviating inflammatory pain and that it can be used as an analgesic with anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.