Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
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  • Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hiroaki Hiraga, Yoh Takekuma, Toru Harabayashi, Satos ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 762-766
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 29, 2020
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    The currently approved dose of pazopanib (800 mg) is being re-examined owing to its adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among starting or maintenance doses of pazopanib, estimated pazopanib Cmin, and other clinical factors, including albumin and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels, in soft-tissue sarcoma and renal cell carcinoma. We also determined whether therapeutic drug monitoring of pazopanib concentrations may be used to improve its therapeutic efficacy and prevent adverse effects. Forty patients who received pazopanib for renal cancer or soft-tissue sarcoma at the Hokkaido Cancer Center were evaluated prospectively. Cmin for pazopanib was calculated based on the measured values from the plasma samples. The efficacy and time to treatment failure were then assessed. The pazopanib maintenance doses were 200 (n = 4), 400 (n = 34), 600 (n = 4), and 800 mg (n = 1). Most patients (65%) who received a 400 mg dose had an effective pazopanib concentration (≧20 µg/mL), whereas 35% of patients who received the 400 mg dose had ineffective concentrations (<20 µg/mL). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only the albumin level was significantly associated with effective pazopanib concentrations (odds ratio: 1.37, p = 0.0234). In conclusion, a dose of 400 mg had been effective and well tolerated in more than half of patients in this study. However, therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary during pazopanib therapy.

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  • Min Yang, Kai-yi Zhou, Feng-feng Li, Hui-yun Yang, Ming Yin, Li-hang Z ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 767-773
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Gentiana delavayi Franch. (Gentianaceae) as an ethnomedicinal plant contains a variety of effective active ingredients and exhibits diverse pharmacological actions, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and central nervous system effects. In this study we investigated the influence of G. delavayi flower extract on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing at molecular and cellular levels. APP/PS1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were treated with chloroform extract of G. delavayi flower in different concentrations for 24 h. Concentrations of amyloid β (Aβ) 40 and Aβ42 in the cell supernatant and activity of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), BACE2, and cathepsin D were determined. The expression of APP and neprilysin (NEP) within the cell were further determined. Compared with the control group, the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 declined notably and the activity of BACE1 was inhibited significantly in the APP/PS1 CHO cells after treatment with the chloroform extract of G. delavayi flower. Although the activities of BACE2 and cathepsin D were not changed, the expression of Aβ degrading enzyme NEP increased remarkably. Our experiments have clearly showed that the chloroform extract of G. delavayi flower inhibits the generation of β-amyloid by specifically inhibiting β-secretase and increases the expression of NEP which fastens the degradation of Aβ, exhibiting the effect of decreasing Aβ accumulation in APP/PS1 CHO cells. These results suggest that the active components from the chloroform extract of G. delavayi flower have a further prospect to be developed as potential anti-Aβ drug.

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  • Jianfeng Zhang, Nana Yao, Shiming Tian
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 774-781
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    The role of morphine, an opioid analgesic drug, in cancer biology has increasingly garnered attention due to its frequent usage in postoperative period for pain management in cancer patients. In this work, we demonstrated that morphine, at clinically relevant concentrations, stimulated migration and growth, and alleviated chemo drugs’ efficacy in esophageal carcinoma cells. Although morphine did not affect survival, it protected esophageal carcinoma cells from chemo drugs-induced apoptosis. Mechanistical studies showed that morphine increased RhoA but not Rac1 activity. In addition, morphine activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) via upregulating Snail and Slug levels, and increased oxidative stress in esophageal carcinoma cells. Rescue studies further demonstrated that the stimulatory effects of morphine in esophageal carcinoma cells are through activation of AMPK pathway but not RhoA or opioid receptor. In addition, morphine induced EMT in an AMPK-dependent manner whereas increased RhoA activity in an AMPK-independent manner. Our work demonstrates the protective role of morphine on esophageal carcinoma cells via AMPK activation, which may provide a new guide in clinical use of morphine for patients with esophageal carcinoma.

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  • Toshinori Hirai, Yuya Kawagoe, Motoki Kei, Ryuichi Ogawa, Toshimasa It ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 782-787
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and prevent the progression of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Because uric acid and electrolytes are physiologically similar to blood glucose in renal excretion, we assessed predictors for the hypoglycemic effect of SGLT2 inhibitor treatment by focusing on serum uric acid and serum electrolytes. We performed a retrospective descriptive observational study at the Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Medical Center East, from June 2015 to July 2018. Patients who received treatment with any type of SGLT2 inhibitor were selected, which included a total of 165 patients. The response to SGLT2 inhibitors defined as changes in HbA1c after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment was the main outcome measure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess predictors for the hypoglycemic effect by SGLT2 inhibitors. Among the 165 patients, SGLT2 inhibitor treatment decreased HbA1c from 8.2 to 7.6% after 12 weeks (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that predictors of early response to SGLT2 inhibitors were serum uric acid values (p = 0.014) and baseline HbA1c (p < 0.001). Furthermore, late response to SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with serum uric acid value (p = 0.047) and baseline HbA1c (p < 0.001). Serum uric acid did not vary during SGLT2 inhibitor treatment; specifically, the SGLT2 inhibitors did not reduce serum uric acid levels. There was no correlation between changes in serum uric acid and HbA1c (p = 0.13). Thus, this study showed that serum uric acid value is associated with the control of diabetes mellitus during SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. Further studies are required to validate these results.

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  • Feng Zhang, Mengting Zhai, Qian Wu, Xiaoyi Jia, Yan Wang, Ning Wang
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 788-800
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2020
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    Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction (TQHXD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine prescription for treating cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TQHXD on intervening inflammatory response of ischemic stroke by regulating intestinal flora and repairing the intestinal barrier. A rat model of cerebral ischemia was established using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and behavioral scores were performed. Additionally, the high throughput 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of intestinal bacteria in fecal samples of rat was also carried out. Our results showed that TQHXD could change the main components of intestinal flora in stroke rats, and reduced the excessive increase of Bacteroidetes, and also regulated the abnormal changes of abundance of some flora as well. In addition, the intestinal epithelial barrier was damaged after stroke, allowing bacterial metabolites to enter the blood, while TQHXD had an improved effect on this phenomenon. Meanwhile, pathological changes in the brain tissue and infarct volume were also alleviated by TQHXD. Due to the disorder of the intestinal flora and the destruction of the barrier, the peripheral immune imbalance caused an inflammatory reaction. TQHXD improved the imbalance of T cells, and inhibited the inflammatory response. Finally, the therapeutic transplantation of fecal microbiota also improved the outcome of stroke in rats. Our presented results suggest that TQHXD may improve the gut microbiota disorder and its induced inflammatory response after stroke, which could be a new target and mechanism for the treatment of stroke.

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  • Honglei Xu, Kun He, Yi Li, Yulong Tao, Chunfang Xu, Zhenlin Hu, Tingfa ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 801-809
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Danshensu (DSS) is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. In this study, the carboxy group of DSS was esterified with edaravone to synthesize the novel DSS derivative DEX-018 to achieve a synergistic protective effect and overcome the structural deficiency of DSS. The pharmacological effect of DEX-018 against tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with DEX-018 significantly increased cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. In addition, DEX-018 inhibited cell apoptosis and reversed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3) in HUVECs stimulated by t-BHP. Further study on the mechanism of DEX-018 revealed that the expression of p-Akt and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was increased, which suggested that DEX-018 may protect HUVECs against t-BHP induced oxidative injury via the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. To further validate the correlation, CCK8 was used to detect cell viability after treatment with DEX-018 plus Akt inhibitor (MK2206) and phosphadylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002). Compared with DEX-018 alone, MK2206 or LY294002 significantly decreased cell viability of HUVECs, indicating that the protective effect of DEX-018 against t-BHP induced oxidative injury was significantly weakened. It was further verified that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of DEX-018 were partly related to the PI3K–Akt signaling pathway.

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  • Tiantian Ren, Peng Wei, Qinghua Song, Zhaohui Ye, Yangjian Wang, Lixin ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 810-816
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 26, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Osteoarthritis is a common disease character with progressive destruction of cartilage. MicroRNA (miR)-140-3p was validated as a biomarker for osteoarthritis. However, the mechanism by which miRNA-140-3p regulates osteoarthritis remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the potential function of miRNA-140-3p during the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. MiRNA-140-3p expression in tissue and CHON-001 chondrocyte cells was determined with quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR. In vitro osteoarthritis model was established by treatment of the chondrocyte cells CHON-001 with interleukin (IL)-1β. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured with cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assay, respectively. Protein expressions were evaluated using Western blot. The target gene of miR-140-3p was predicted using Targetscan and miRDB. MiR-140-3p was downregulated in knee tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. IL-1β inhibited the proliferation of CHON-001 cells via inducing apoptosis. In addition, IL-1β significantly inhibited the expressions of collagen II and aggrecan and increased the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)13. However, the effects of IL-1β could be ameliorated by the addition of miR-140-3p mimics. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay demonstrated CXCR4 as a target gene of miR-140-3p. IL-1β-induced upregulation of CXCR4 could be blocked by miR-140-3p mimics. Our study indicated that miR-140-3p could suppress the progression of osteoarthritis by directly targeting CXCR4. Therefore, miR-140-3p might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

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  • Shino Miyauchi-Wakuda, Satomi Kagota, Kana Maruyama-Fumoto, Yayoi Shio ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 817-822
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Diarrhea is often caused by changes in lifestyle, stress, or side effects of drugs. Acanthopanax senticosus root extract (ASRE) has long been used as a functional food remedy with anti-fatigue, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. However, it is unclear whether ASRE has beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Therefore, we first investigated whether ASRE directly affects contractile functions of the isolated mouse ileum, and then assessed its effects on GI transit of a charcoal meal in normal mice and a carbachol (CCh)-induced diarrhea mouse model. ASRE caused contraction of the isolated mouse ileum and the maximum contraction was approximately half of that induced by acetylcholine (ACh) administration. In the presence of atropine, this ASRE-induced contraction disappeared, while relaxation responses were observed. However, ASRE reduced potassium chloride- and ACh-induced contractions, and the inhibitory effect was not counteracted by a β-blocker. Administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor or potassium channel blockers did not affect the ASRE-induced relaxation. Oral administration of ASRE for 1 and 4 d reduced the increased GI transit in CCh-treated but did not affect the GI transit of normal mice. These results indicate that ASRE exhibited dual effects of contraction via muscarinic receptors and direct relaxation on mouse ileal function, and its relaxant effect could be useful in treating diarrhea symptoms, resulting in an increase in the parasympathetic nerve activities.

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  • Genki Nakamura, Kazuhisa Ozeki, Miho Nagayasu, Takeru Nambu, Takayuki ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 823-830
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Efficiency (speed and cost) and animal welfare are important factors in the development of new drugs. A novel method (the half-life method) was developed to predict the human plasma concentration–time profile of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) after intravenous (i.v.) administration using less data compared to the conventional approach; moreover, predicted results were comparable to conventional method. This new method use human geometric means of pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters and the non-human primates (NHP) half-life of each mAb. PK data on mAbs in humans and NHPs were collected from literature focusing on linear elimination, and the two-compartment model was used for analysis. The following features were revealed in humans: 1) the coefficient of variation in the distribution volume of the central compartment and at steady state of mAbs was small (22.6 and 23.8%, respectively) and 2) half-life at the elimination phase (t1/2β) was the main contributor to plasma clearance. Moreover, distribution volume showed no significant correlation between humans and NHPs, and human t1/2β showed a good correlation with allometrically scaled t1/2β of NHP. Based on the features revealed in this study, we propose a new method for predicting the human plasma concentration–time profile of mAbs after i.v. dosing. When tested, this half-life method showed reasonable human prediction compared with a conventional empirical approach. The half-life method only requires t1/2β to predict human PK, and is therefore able to improve animal welfare and potentially accelerate the drug development process.

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    Editor’s picks

    Efficiency and animal welfare are important factors in the development of new drugs. Considering this, Nakamura et al. propose a new way of predicting human PK for mAbs that is more efficient than conventional methods. By collecting mAb PK data on linear elimination and analyzing a two-compartment model, they revealed that half-life during elimination is the main contributor to plasma clearance. Based on this feature, they developed a novel method that uses easy-to-obtain parameters from humans and non-human primates to predict human PK. Called the half-life method, it can improve animal welfare and potentially accelerate the drug development process.

  • Mehmet Evren Okur, Şule Ayla, Ayşe Esra Karadağ, Derya Çiçek Polat, Si ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 831-838
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    This study aims to determine the potential renal protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (OFI) fruits against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. The antioxidant activity of OFI methanol extract was calculated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, the LC-mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis of the OFI fruit extract was carried out. Mice were treated with OFI extract (250 mg/kg) for 10 d and injected with a single dose of cisplatin (20 mg/kg) on the 7th day. The blood samples were collected to measure blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine level on the 10th day. Their kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The renal morphological alterations were assessed through the mesangial matrix index and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The OFI fruit extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant activity. In further, it was revealed that the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice was ameliorated; this outcome was supported by both histological examination results and the depicted reduced levels of BUN and serum creatinine. The potent antioxidant compounds which were detected in the extract of OFI fruits such as myricetin, quercetin, luteolin might be responsible for the observed renoprotective effect. The results clarified that the OFI fruit extract could ameliorate cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice via including antioxidant and renoprotective compounds.

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  • Takato Nikaido, Chikashi Maruyama, Minako Hamanaka, Chiharu Yamaguchi, ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 839-847
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
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    Ethenzamide (ETZ), an antipyretic analgesic categorized as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is widely used as an OTC drug in combination with other NSAIDs. However, its site of action and mechanism underlying its analgesic action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we performed in vitro pharmacological assays to identify the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of ETZ, and also conducted the rat formalin test to investigate its analgesic effect and site of action. Of the 85 receptors, ion channels, transporters and enzymes tested, we found that ETZ binds to the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2B receptor in concentration-dependent manner with modest inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase-A and transient potential vanilloid 1 channel. The 5HT2B receptor antagonist activity of ETZ was also confirmed in a cellular functional assay. Furthermore, the drug exerted no inhibitory effects on cycrooxygenase-1 and -2. In the rat formalin test, oral administration of ETZ significantly reduced the nociceptive responses of the second phase and also the number of c-Fos-expressing cells in the spinal dorsal horn, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, intrathecal administration of ETZ significantly reduced the nociceptive responses. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of ETZ is exerted at least in the spinal cord, and the effect would be attributed to multiple mechanisms of action including 5HT2B receptor blockade.

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    Editor’s picks

    Ethenzamide (ETZ) is widely used as an OTC pain reliever, however, its site of action and mechanism underlying its analgesic action had not yet been fully elucidated. The article by Nikaido et al. provides evidence suggesting that the analgesic effect of ETZ in the rat formalin test was mediated by multiple mechanisms of action including the 5-hydroxytryptamine2B receptor blockade at the spinal cord.

  • Chiho Yanai, Hiroaki Tanaka, Noriko N. Miura, Ken-ichi Ishibashi, Dais ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 848-858
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 10, 2020
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    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease that was identified by Professor Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1961. Candida albicans-derived substances, such as the hot water extract of C. albicans (CADS) and Candida water-soluble fraction (CAWS), induced coronary vasculitis similar to KD in mice. An increasing proportion of deep-seated candidiasis cases are caused by non-albicans Candida and are often resistant to antifungal drugs. We herein investigated whether the hot water extract of C. krusei, inherently resistant to fluconazole, induces vasculitis in mice. Three strains of C. krusei, NBRC1395, NBRC1162, and NBRC10737, were cultured in natural (Y) and chemically defined (C) media and cell wall mannoprotein (MN) fractions were prepared by autoclaving cells (CKY1395MN, CKC1395MN, CKY1162MN, CKC1162MN, CKY10737MN, and CKC10737MN). All MN fractions reacted strongly with Concanavalin A (Con A) and dectin-2 and induced anaphylactoid shock in ICR mice. MNs induced severe coronary vasculitis in DBA/2 mice, resulting in cardiac hypertrophy. MNs also induced coronary vasculitis in C57Bl/6 mice. These results suggest that the MNs of non-albicans Candida, such as C. krusei, induce similar toxicity to those of C. albicans.

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  • Ryo Kondo, Ayuki Nakano, Daiki Asano, Akane Morita, Shiho Arima, Asami ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 859-863
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Pathological angiogenesis is a leading cause of blindness in several retinal diseases. The key driving factor inducing pathological angiogenesis is the pronounced hypoxia leading to a marked, increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of this study was to determine whether the abnormal vascular growth occurs in a manner dependent on the degree of the vascular defects. Vascular defects of two different degrees were created in the retina by subcutaneously treating neonatal rats with the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor KRN633 on postnatal day (P) 4 and P5 (P4/5) or P7 and P8 (P7/8). The structure of the retinal vasculature changes was examined immunohistochemically. Prevention of vascular growth and regression of some preformed capillaries were observed on the next day, after completion of each treatment (i.e., P6 and P9). The vascular regrowth occurred as a result of eliminating the inhibitory effect on the VEGFR signaling pathway. KRN633 (P4/5)-treated rats exhibited a retinal vasculature with aggressive intravitreal neovascularization on P21. On the other hand, the appearance of tortuous arteries is a representative vascular pathological feature in retinas of KRN633 (P7/8)-treated groups. These results suggest that an interruption of the retinal vascular development at different time points induces different vascular pathological features in the retina. Pharmacological agents targeting the VEGF signaling pathway are useful for creating an abnormal retinal vasculature with various pathological features in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic compounds.

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    Editor’s picks

    Pathological angiogenesis is a leading cause of blindness in several retinal diseases. Kondo et al. demonstrated that only a 2-day treatment of neonatal rats with the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor at different time points could induce abnormal blood vessels with different vascular pathological features (intravitreal neovascularization vs. tortuous arteries) in the retina. Pharmacological agents targeting the VEGF signaling pathway are useful for creating an abnormal retinal vasculature with various pathological features in order to study the mechanisms underlying abnormal retinal angiogenesis and evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenic compounds.

  • Jie Zeng, Dongning Li, Zhubo Li, Jie Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhao
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 864-872
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Cardiac fibrosis is a major contributor for diabetic cardiomyopathy and Dendrobium officinale possessed therapeutic effects on hyperglycemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the Dendrobium officinale on diabetic myocardial fibrosis in mice. Water-soluble extracts of Dendrobium officinale (DOE) from dry stem was analyzed by HPLC and phenol-sulfuric acid method. Diabetic mice were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg) for 4 consecutive days after intragastric administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks. The groups were as follows: control group, model group, DOE low, medium, high dose group (75, 150, 300 mg/kg) and Metformin positive group (125 mg/kg). The results showed that DOE dose-dependently lower serum insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and grew the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) after 12 weeks of daily administration with DOE. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Sirius red staining showed obvious amelioration of cardiac injury and fibrosis. In addition, the result of immunoblot indicated that DOE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS1) and E-cadherin and repressed the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), Twist, Snail1 and Vimentin. The present findings suggested that DOE ameliorated HFD/STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The possible mechanism mainly associated with DOE accelerating lipid transport, inhibiting insulin resistant and suppressing fibrosis induced by epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT).

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  • Takeshi Chiba, Hiroaki Takahashi, Tomohiko Tairabune, Soichiro Kimura, ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 873-878
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cancer cachexia on pain control in cancer patients receiving a transdermal fentanyl patch (FP) and to investigate whether dry skin was a factor related to cancer cachexia and uncontrolled pain. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 77 patients receiving FP treatment for the first time, who were classified into cancer cachexia and non-cancer-cachexia groups, according to European Palliative Care Research Collaborative criteria. On day 7 after FP administration, the mean FP dose and morphine equivalent dose (MED) in the cancer cachexia group were significantly higher than in the non-cancer-cachexia group. Additionally, in the cancer cachexia group, there was a significantly larger degree of variation in pain intensity over 7 d than in the non-cachexia group. In patients who were switched from FP to morphine injection, the mean pain intensity and MED on day 3 after morphine injection were significantly lower than those immediately before morphine injection. Subsequently, to investigate whether dry skin was involved in poor pain control in the cancer cachexia group, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was compared between 15 additional patients classified into cancer cachexia and non-cancer cachexia groups; the mean TEWL in the cancer cachexia group was found to be significantly lower. Our data suggest that cancer cachexia may be a risk factor for poor pain control in patients receiving FP treatment, and that uncontrolled pain in FP treatment may be caused by the inhibition of fentanyl transdermal absorption due to dry skin.

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    Editor’s picks

    The transdermal fentanyl patch (FP) has been used worldwide to relieve cancer pain. However, no previous studies have examined the influence of cancer cachexia on pain control in cancer patients receiving FP treatment. Chiba et al. found that cancer cachexia may be a risk factor for poor pain control in patients receiving FP treatment, and that uncontrolled pain in FP treatment may be caused by the inhibition of fentanyl transdermal absorption due to dry skin.

  • Ko Sugiura, Shin Koike, Toshihiro Suzuki, Yuki Ogasawara
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 879-883
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a reactive α-dicarbonyl compound that causes carbonylation of protein and DNA through the pathways of the Maillard reaction. It is known that MGO is physiologically involved in renal dysfunction, vascular disorders, and the acceleration of aging. In this study, we showed for the first time, that a trace amount of MGO was present as an impurity in glycerol preparations used as external medicines and intravenous infusions, when kept unused. The concentration of MGO in the glycerol solutions, diluted to a concentration of 20%, significantly increased after storage for one month when compared to the MGO concentration immediately after opening. Following storage for 6 months at 25°C, MGO concentration increased by about 300 times (approx. 170 µM), and at 40°C, it increased by about 600 times (approx. 350 µM). In the case of intravenous infusion preparations containing 10% glycerol, the MGO concentration increased by 4–15 times (approx. 70 µM) after 2 months of storage at 40°C, and reached over 200 µM after 6 months. Results from the present study showed that glycerol in pharmaceutical preparations is gradually oxidized to form MGO via autoxidation, depending on the temperature and dissolved oxygen content. Thus, we suggest that precautions should be taken when storing glycerol preparations in bottles or plastic containers, with respect to the storage temperature and sealability to prevent MGO formation due to oxidation of glycerol.

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  • Ali Parlar, Seyfullah Oktay Arslan, Saliha Ayşenur Çam
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 884-897
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
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    Inflammation, and the pain that accompanies it, is a natural response of the body. The licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, and anti-nociceptive effects of its extracts. The effective ingredient remains unidentified; however, one possibility is the unique isoflavone glabridin. The anti-nociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of glabridin and its possible mechanism with focus on the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels and L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway were examined by using different tests. In order to determine the anti-edematous, anti-nociceptive, and anti-oxidative effects of glabradin, some tests such as the tail flick, hotplate, carrageenan-induced paw edema, air pouch, acetic-acid-induced writhing, formalin, and capsaicin tests, as well as toxicity and open field tests were made. Glabridin was administered to rats (n = 8) or mice (n = 8) for 3 d at 3 doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg). Glabridin inhibited cytokine production and showed an anti-nociceptive response via the activating of BKCa channels and downregulating NO level and partially transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 pathways. It also demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, while showing no cytotoxicity. Glabridin, however, showed no anti-nociceptive effect in the neurogenic phase. Glabridin is a promising substance in terms of its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by disrupting peripheral NO production, inhibiting cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activation and activating BKCa channels and its lack of acute and subacute toxic effects.

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  • Momochika Kumagai, Keisuke Nishikawa, Takashi Mishima, Izumi Yoshida, ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 898-903
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Bone loss and bone-related disease are associated with the deregulation of osteoclast function, and therefore agents that affect osteoclastogenesis have attracted attention. The purpose of the present study was to discover modified kavalactone analogs as potential anti-osteoclastogenic agents. We assessed the effect of 26 analogs on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. The most potent compound, (E)-6-(2-fluorostyryl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (22), suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenic differentiation of RAW264 cells with IC50 values of 4.3 µM. A partial structure–activity relationship study revealed the importance of fluorine and its position within the 5,6-dehydrokawain skeleton. The results of a pit formation assay suggested that compound 22 prevents osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, compound 22 downregulated mRNA expression levels of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteoclastogenesis-related genes. These results suggest that (E)-6-(2-fluorostyryl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one scaffold could lead to the identification of new anti-resorptive agents.

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    To discover small molecules that affect osteoclastogenesis, Kumagai et al designed and synthesized styrylpyrone analogs, and discovered (E)-6-(2-fluorostyryl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (22) has osteoclast-inhibitory activities in murine RAW264 cells. A partial structure-activity relationship revealed that fluorine and its position within the styrylpyrone skeleton were important. Authors also revealed that compound 22 prevents osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Compound 22 downregulated mRNA expression levels of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteoclastogenesis-related genes. These findings may be useful for the desigh of antiresorptive agents for the treatment of bone disorders characterized by excessive osteoclastic activity .

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  • Madoka Kisoi, Miho Imai, Miwako Yamamura, Yui Sakaguchi, Shigenori Mur ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 904-907
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    CYP2D6 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme involved in the metabolism of 20–25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Genetic polymorphism of CYP has clinically significant modifications in patients’ drug-metabolizing capacities. Since gene copy number variation (CNV) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequently occur in the CYP2D6 gene, which the activity of CYP2D6 particularly depend on the genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the frequencies of CYP2D6 genotypes in a Japanese female subject of 216 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were genotyped for CNV Exon 9 and four CYP2D6 genetic variants (*2, *5, *10, *14, *41) performed by TaqMan® genotyping assays. The CNV allele frequencies were 82.9% for two copies, 11.6% for one copy, 4.6% for three copies and 0.9% for zero copy, respectively. The frequencies of CYP2D6*1, *2, *5, *10, *14, and *41 were 38.7, 16.7, 6.3, 34.7, 0.2, and 1.2%, respectively. CYP2D6*5 and *14 were the major defective alleles. However, this genotyping is labor intensive, time consuming, and costly. We report an optimized novel protocol for the determination of CNV and SNP in CYP2D6 gene by real-time quantitative PCR. This can lower the cost and accurately determine CNV and SNP in the CYP2D6 gene with a higher output and enabling reliable estimates of disease prediction in large epidemiological samples.

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  • Barbora Melkes, Vendula Markova, Lucie Hejnova, Ales Marek, Jiri Novot ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 908-912
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
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    The receptor channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a sensor of noxious heat and various chemicals. There is increasing evidence for a crosstalk between TRPV1 and opioid receptors. Here we investigated the effect of the prototypical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and selected opioid ligands on TRPV1 movement in the plasma membrane and intracellular calcium levels in HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1 tagged with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). We observed that lateral mobility of TRPV1 increased after treatment of cells with capsaicin or naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist) but not with DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist). Interestingly, both capsaicin and naloxone, unlike DAMGO, elicited intracellular calcium responses. The increased TRPV1 movement and calcium influx induced by capsaicin and naloxone were blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. The ability of naloxone to directly interact with TRPV1 was further corroborated by [3H]-naloxone binding. In conclusion, our data suggest that besides acting as an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone may function as a potential TRPV1 agonist.

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  • Nobuhiro Ooba, Ayaka Sente, Megumi Abe, Fumiyuki Watanabe, Daisuke Tsu ...
    2020 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 913-916
    Published: May 01, 2020
    Released: May 01, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2020
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    Guidelines for cardiovascular drug therapy recommend monitoring serum digoxin concentration (SDC) in patients receiving digoxin treatment, especially those with renal dysfunction and hypokalemia. However, only a few studies have reported the prevalence of SDC monitoring and laboratory testing in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the frequency of SDC monitoring and laboratory testing in digoxin users and to assess the association between SDC monitoring and patient characteristics. We used the Japanese insurance claims data covering approximately 1.7 million patients aged 20–74 years between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2014. All patients who had at least one prescription for digoxin were included. The frequency of SDC and laboratory tests was calculated and the association between patient characteristics and SDC monitoring was assessed using logistic regression analysis. A total of 98867 prescriptions of digoxin were issued to 3458 patients between 2005 and 2014. The annual mean frequencies of monitoring SDC, serum potassium level and serum creatinine level and of recording electrocardiograms was 16.8, 34.8, 38.7, and 24.1%, respectively. Atrial fibrillation, chronic heart failure, renal diseases, and use of oral anticoagulants were associated with SDC monitoring. We found the frequency of SDC monitoring to be relatively low in Japanese clinical practice.

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