The majority of growth factor receptors are composed of extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (TK) domains. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation regulates many key processes including cell growth and survival. However, dysregulation of RTK has been found in a wide range of cancers, and it has been shown to correlate with the development and progression of numerous cancers. Therefore, RTK has become an attractive therapeutic target. One way to effectively block signaling from RTK is inhibition of its catalytic activity with small-molecule inhibitors. Low-molecular-weight TK inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, targeting tumors with mutant c-Kit, and gefitinib, targeting non-small cell lung cancer with mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), have received marketing approval in Japan. MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) are frequently genetically altered in advanced cancers. TKIs of these receptors have not yet appeared on the market, but many anticancer drug candidates are currently undergoing clinical trials. Most of these TKIs were designed to compete with ATP at the ATP-binding site within the TK domain. This review will focus on small-molecule TKIs targeting MET, FGFR, and IGF-IR and discuss the merits and demerits of two types of agents, i.e., those with only one or a few targets and those directed at multiple targets. Targeting agents specifically inhibiting the target kinase were previously searched for based on the hypothesis that a narrow target window might reduce unexpected side effects, but agents with multiple targets have been recently developed to overcome tumors resistant against a single-targeting agent.
2011 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan