2018 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 835-842
Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles with a diameter 30–120 nm. Exosomes contain endogenous proteins and nucleic acids; delivery of these molecules to exosome-recipient cells causes biological effects. Exosomes derived from some types of cells such as mesenchymal stem cells and dendritic cells have therapeutic potential and may be biocompatible and efficient agents against various disorders such as organ injury. However, there are many challenges for the development of exosome-based therapeutics. In particular, producing exosomal formulations is the major barrier for therapeutic application because of their heterogeneity and low productivity. Development and optimization of producing methods, including methods for isolation and storage of exosome formulations, are required for realizing exosome-based therapeutics. In addition, improvement of therapeutic potential and delivery efficiency of exosomes are important for their therapeutic application. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about therapeutic application of exosomes and discuss some challenges in their successful use.