2017 年 47 巻 p. 23-32
How should EFL teachers deal with students who seem to fail? Teachers may mainly provide EFL learners with optimistic outlook or pessimistic view to have them learn English. In EFL learning, are there any difference between optimistic and pessimistic learners, in case of success-approach or failure-avoidance. I developed two different measurements to assess optimism and pessimism, and, discriminating needs from behaviors in success-approach and failure-avoidance, explored how they are related to success-approach and failure-avoidance in EFL learning. The result shows the following. First, pessimists, who forebode that they will fail, feel motivated to learn English but won’t learn English. Second, optimists, who expect that they will succeed, will study English. Therefore, optimistic outlook can lead students close to failure into studying English.