Cell Structure and Function
Online ISSN : 1347-3700
Print ISSN : 0386-7196
ISSN-L : 0386-7196
Cell biology of protein–lipid conjugation
Jun-ichi SakamakiNoboru Mizushima
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2023 Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 99-112


Protein–lipid conjugation is a widespread modification involved in many biological processes. Various lipids, including fatty acids, isoprenoids, sterols, glycosylphosphatidylinositol, sphingolipids, and phospholipids, are covalently linked with proteins. These modifications direct proteins to intracellular membranes through the hydrophobic nature of lipids. Some of these membrane-binding processes are reversible through delipidation or by reducing the affinity to membranes. Many signaling molecules undergo lipid modification, and their membrane binding is important for proper signal transduction. The conjugation of proteins to lipids also influences the dynamics and function of organellar membranes. Dysregulation of lipidation has been associated with diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we first provide an overview of diverse forms of protein–lipid conjugation and then summarize the catalytic mechanisms, regulation, and roles of these modifications.

Key words: lipid, lipidation, membrane, organelle, protein modification

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© 2023 The Author(s) CC-BY 4.0 (Submission before October 2016: Copyright © Japan Society for Cell Biology)

Copyright: ©2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons BY (Attribution) License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the unrestricted distribution, reproduction and use of the article provided the original source and authors are credited.
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