In most eukaryotes, phosphoinositides (PIs) have crucial roles in multiple cellular functions. Although the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) are extremely low relative to some other PIs, emerging evidence demonstrates that both lipids are crucial for the endocytic pathway, intracellular signaling, and adaptation to stress. Mutations that causes defects in the biosynthesis of PI5P and PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we review recent findings on cellular roles of PI5P and PI(3,5)P2, as well as the pathophysiological importance of these lipids.
2017 The Author(s) CC-BY 4.0 (Submission before October 2016: Copyright © Japan Society for Cell Biology)