2019 年 13 巻 p. 397-413
Since IC cards have much larger data capacity in comparison with paper-based magnetic tickets, they can record the precise data of passengers’ travel. Japanese passenger railways have tried to utilise this advantage to make public transport more convenient and to expand its business scope without support from the public sector. Although various IC card systems were developed by different railways, 10 major cards have agreed on mutual use among them since 2013. As such, Japanese passenger railways have garnered fruitful results by utilising IC card systems so far. To make public transport in urban areas more convenient, the public sector can also utilise IC card systems to introduce new rules like those found in Singapore.