2011 年 2011 巻 31 号 p. 241-264
The relationship between the EU and the Mediterranean enters a new stage after the 1995 Barcelona Declaration. This phase has been preceded by an active implementation of EU’s policy towards the Mediterranean since the 1960s. The main objective of the ongoing policy is to ensure high economic growth in the Mediterranean area based on the promotion of EU’s FDI into the region which is fully integrated in the production network of Europe. This type of policy has also been the underpinnings of Central and Eastern Europe’s economic development. Having agreed with the similar development policy, Mediterranean countries, especially Morocco, have started an FDI-oriented economic growth strategy.
The general objective of this study is to illustrate the process of EU’s FDI in the Mediterranean, especially Morocco, taking the EU policy as a starting point. In particular, after a description of the characteristics of Moroccan development strategy, an attention is paid to the market level behavior. Specifically, we investigate the present condition of the Moroccan automotive industry and examine the case of Renault based on a fieldwork.
In recent years, the automobile and aeronautic sectors have become one of the most important sectors with respect to the Moroccan Industrial Emergence National Pact and have consequently received large inflows of FDI mainly from Southern Europe’s multinational firms (France and Spain). The economic reforms taking place in Morocco, namely the Tanger MED port facilities, the various free zones and the governmental investment incentives packages, can explain the recent increase of FDI in the country. Besides, contrarily the other Mediterranean countries, Morocco has adopted the “advanced status” in 2008 which aimed at legally making the country closer to EU through the EU acquis.
Our fieldwork has been conducted in SOMACA and Renault-Nissan (Tanger-Project). SOMACA has been, until 2002, an export-oriented firm focusing in the Southern European market and has started the exports of low-cost vehicles (Dacia-Logan) in 2007. Despite the recent financial crisis, Renault is one of the most important firms, especially because our fieldwork has shown that the “Renault-Tanger Mediterranean” Project with a production capacity of 400000 vehicles, a low-cost production base, is the greatest project ever in the Moroccan automotive sector. An examination of the Moroccan automobile industry can consequently help to have an idea on part of the formation of a production network that is taking place in the region.