2011 年 2011 巻 31 号 p. 81-101
In this study, an analysis was conducted on EU’s main institutions and policy-making processes that arose from the Treaty of Lisbon.
With regard to the European Parliament, I examined its position, the new powers it has been given to select the President of the European Commission, the changes in seat allocations and the process for deciding how seats are allocated to each country. I also investigated the European Council’s new position in the EU organisation and its new role to replace the national governments of the member states as the EU’s top legislative body, in order to deal more flexibly with the future widening and deepening of the European integration. Furthermore, I refer to the significance of the European Council’s adoption of qualified majority voting and the selection of a President of the European Council. With regard to the Council of the European Union, I investigated the changes in the requirements for having a majority in its qualified majority voting system, the reorganisation of the Council itself, the new role of the High Representative of the Foreign Affairs Council and changes in the rotation of the Councils’ chairpeople. As for the European Commission, I analysed the problem of reducing the number of commission seats, the strengthening of restrictions on the powers of the Commission President and the dual role of the High Representative as Vice-President. With respect to the policy-making, I examined the adoption of ordinary legislative procedure and special legislative procedures and made reference to the decision-making process within the national governments of the member states.
Based on the above, the reforms brought about by the Treaty of Lisbon have lead to four distinct trends: ⑴ the strengthening of democracy at the EU level; ⑵ the placing of restrictions on member states’ sovereignty and influence; ⑶ the European Council as the EU’s top body has begun to embody this role in a real sense through proactive and systematic activities. Finally, there will be a greater clarification regarding the powers, advancement in positions and roles of the heads of the EU’s main institutions-the European Council, Commission and Foreign Council.
According to the Treaty of Lisbon, it has become clear that the EU is a political system that, in reality, governs with the European Council institutionalised at its summit, the European Parliament as well as the Council of the European Union as the legislature and the European Commission as the executive.