2019 年 2019 巻 39 号 p. 20-43
Populism is defined as a kind of political movements, which fight against so-called established elites belonging to political, economic and other spheres and maintain that they protect interests of the general people. A lot of populist movements have taken place in member countries of the EU and they have been strengthened since victory of populist movement in the Brexit referendum in 2016 even in the developed European countries and the United States of America.
Today, they proposed mainly two kinds of explanation about the rise of populist movements in the EU: cultural or national backlash towards immigrants, and widening disparity in the member countries and the European Union.
The first objective of this article is to seek how the widening disparities have been related with lack in solidarity actions and solidarity-related integration in the EU/euro area during the so-called euro area crisis. The EU/euro area was lacking in solidarity actions in the euro area crisis during 2010 and 2013. The western European governments and the EU deepened the sovereign and financial crises since they lost solidarity with the southern European countries. This lack of solidarity caused very severe unemployment in the South and Eastern European countries. It was a fundamental cause to bring a rise of anti-EU populist parties there.
The solidarity crisis pushed up mass unemployment and economic stagnation in the EU and the euro area. Several researches on votings for anti-establishment parties found, based on statistical methods using regional data across Europe, that a strong relationship between increases in unemployment and voting for populist parties. Increases in unemployment go in tandem with a decline in trust in national and European institutions, but they have only muted correlation towards immigrants.
Increases in unemployment can be interpreted as an indicator of widening disparity. On the basis of these previous researches, this article seeks historical development of widening income disparities in the end of the twentieth century and almost two decades in the 21st century.
There have been several types of populism in Europe. The second objective of this article is to study relationship between types of populism and types of widening disparity. Picking up the Brexit movement, the movement of the German AfD and the East European populism in Poland and Hungary, this article found characteristics of these three populist movements with their specific widening disparities.