Although eye diseases are considered to be relatively less affected by patient sex, it is noteworthy that the presence of hormone receptors have been confirmed in various ocular tissues, which were considered to have few sex-based differences.
Female hormone levels are known to change because of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. When female hormone levels markedly fluctuate in such situations, the disease state may change.
The fluctuations in the levels of sex hormones affect the corneal thickness conditions of uveitis.
Estrogen may be a possible therapeutic option for glaucoma because it protects the eyes from damage caused by glaucoma and reduces intraocular pressure;it is particularly promising in the treatment of postmenopausal women with glaucoma.
Estrogen is considered to have a prophylactic effect against eye diseases. However, there is a report that female sex is an independent risk factor for the progression of diabetic retinopathy, so it may not always exert a prophylactic effect. Thus, caution should be exercised.
Based on recent progression of studies on this field, the importance of treatment according to gender has been recognized in the treatment of eye diseases.