1939 年 15 巻 9 号 p. 672-685
The “Yasiki-mori” (forest in farmyard, or mantles of trees for houses) develops on the Musasino upland, a western suburb of Tôkyô, where there prevails the north-west wind in winter, causing the inhabitants to believe that the mantle is for the wind. As to the dis-tribution of the wind mantle, Dr. Yazawa has written a paper for this Review (Vol. 12, 1936, Nos. 1 and 2).
The present author, who has studied the types and functions of the mantle, selected two villages, one of “Einzelfdorf” and the other of the “Strassendorf” type. The number investigated totaled 677 farm houses, of which 70%, have thatched, 25% zinc, and 5% tile roofs.
(1) Farmyards having tree-belts all round them formed 64.4% (see Table 2, p. 630). The belts, which are dense, mostly, stand on the north and west sides of the yards (see Table 1, p. 629) which coincide with the direction of the prevailing wind in winter.
(2) The trees are evergreens (nearly 75, %) and shed leaved (25%). In the former, quercus trees predominate, followed by cedar and bamboo; in the latter we find mostly zelkova trees. As to the distribu-tion of the trees according to direction: most of the quercus lie southward, followed by W, N, and E. The cedar lies mostly W, and least S, and the zelkova mostly N and S and least W and E.
(3) Styles and types : The author classified them into 6 styles, M, Mz, Mq, Z, Q, Qq, Of these Mq, and Qq are developed the most, with tall hedges of Quercus on the south side (see Pls. 14 and 15).
There are two types, the one the mixed forest (M), consisting of evergreens and shed leaved trees, and the other of quercus only (Q); their ratio is 7:3. M, which is large in size, is always found in old settlements and the rich farms, whereas Q is small found in new set-tlements and the poorer farms. This fact shows that the type indi-cates some of the history, and the social and economic conditions of a settlement.
(4) Functions: (a) Wind mantle as protection from the prevailing wind in winter and tyfoon in summer. (b) Adjustment of climate in winter and summer. (c) Protection against sand winds and fires. (d) Econnomically, for wood as material for building and making tools.
(e) Decoration of farmyards and houses.
In Japan, these house mantles are also developed in Toyama, Tottori, Sizuoka, and I wate prefectures showing various styles and types of which the author will write on another occasion.