Geographical Review of Japa,. Ser. A, Chirigaku Hyoron
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
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1987 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 109-119


The purpose of this symposium is to summarize all available researches on Manbo Qanat by Japanese scholars (including bibliographical aids of international scholars inter-estell in this field of research) and discuss our future research projects on Manbo & Qanata.
Seven communications were presented: 1) Y. KIMOTO (Mie University)
“Manbo Irrigation System: my observation as an agricultural enginneer”
2) Y. SAKANO (Yokkaichi Technical High School)
“Origin, disporsals & recent modifications of Manbo System in Mie Prefecture”
3) K. ARATANI (Yoshiki High School)
“A Case Study on Manbo system in Gifu Prefecture”
4) S. OKAZAKI (Osaka University of Foreign Studies) “Distribution & Classification of Horizontal Wells in Western Japan”
5) K. TANAKA (Mie College)
“Distribution of local dialects concerning Manbo and Horizontal Wells in Eastern Japan”
6) T. ODA (Kyoto University, Prof. Emer.)
“Differnces & Similarities on Construction techniques of Manbo & Qanat”
7) I. KOBORI (Mie University), M. KATAKURA (National Museum of Ethnology) & K. YAGI (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
“Case Studies on Qanat Systems in Syria, Algeria, China and South America”
After presentations, various interesting comments such as “Hydrological Aspects of Manbo system (K. MORI, Mie University), “Re-varluation of Manbo-Qanat System as an alternative technology” (I. KAYANE, University of Tsukuba) were introduced.
As one conclusion of this symposium, the Organizers have noticed that several further intensive & extensive researches have to be done in and outside Japan.
No. I) The definition of Manbo is very necessary. So called Manbo in Mie Prefecture and its adjacent areas has an approximately similiar physical form in comparison with Qanat. However, Manbo as a mediaeval Japanese means simply tunnel and there are many Manbos as underground tunnels or aqueducts without vertical shafts. Under those confusing conditions, we definitely need an exact definition of Manbo as a terminology.
No. II) The orgin & dispersals of Manbo. We have little information about the technical influence of mining engineering to Manbo system. But no concrete historical, geographical cutural studies are available up to present.
No. III) The compilation and printing of all available published or non-published informations is urgently needed for researchers & planners.
No. IV) Although Manbo system might or might not have direct technical relations with Qanat, the same project on Qanat equivalent to No. III Project is to be done by inter national academic circles. The Japanese groups too, are ready to share their experiences with them.

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